引用本文:李锋.我国农村人口受教育水平的比较研究[J].农业科研经济管理,2020,(3):12-20
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我国农村人口受教育水平的比较研究
李锋
作者单位
李锋 中国农业科学院农业信息研究所,北京100081 
摘要:
乡村振兴和农业现代化,以及农业科技成果的应用,都离不开农村的人力资源。经过几十年的努力,我国人口素质持续提升,农村人口受教育水平也相应提升。但是城乡人口受教育水平差距仍然明显。我国农村人口受教育水平到底怎么样?城乡差异情况又如何?形成城乡差异的动因如何?该怎么应对?为回答这几个问题,文章系统梳理、分析了我国城乡人口受教育水平的历史数据,构建了人口受教育水平指标; 对比城市人口受教育水平,我国农村人口受教育水平与城市人口存在近30年的差距,与全国平均水平存在15年的差距。约束农村人口受教育水平提升的因素是综合性的,例如城镇化进程、农业行业工资水平差异、城乡收入差异等。据此并结合文献调研情况,该文提出对策建议,包括增加农村教育资金投入、提高农村居民收入水平、推动城乡人口双向流动、运用信息技术手段等,以此促进农村人口受教育水平整体提升,为乡村振兴、农业现代化、农业科技成果的应用提供相应的人力资源支撑。
关键词:  农村人口人力资源受教育水平乡村振兴
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:
RESEARCH ON THE EDUCATIONAL LEVEL OF RURAL POPULATION IN CHINA
Li Feng
Abstract:
Rural revitalization and agricultural modernization are inseparable from rural human resources. After decades of efforts, the quality of our population has been continuously improved, and the education level of rural population has also been improved accordingly. However, the gap between urban and rural population′s educational level is still obvious. How is the educational level of rural population in China? What about the difference between urban and rural areas? What are the reasons for the difference between urban and rural areas? How to deal with it? In order to answer these questions, this paper systematically combed and analyzed the historical data of the education level of urban and rural population in China, and constructed the index of the education level of population. Compared with the education level of urban population, there was a gap between the education level of rural population and urban population in China for nearly 30 years, and a gap of 15 years between the education level of rural population and the national average level. The factors that restricted the improvement of rural population′s education level were comprehensive, such as urbanization process, wage level difference in agricultural industry, income difference between urban and rural areas, etc. Based on the results and the literature research, the article put forward some countermeasures and suggestions, including increasing the investment of rural education funds, improving the income level of rural residents, promoting the two way flow of urban and rural population, using information technology means, giving full play to the role of laws and regulations and Party organizations, so as to promote the overall improvement of rural population′s education level, and provide corresponding human resources support for rural revitalization and agricultural modernization.
Key words:  rural population; human resources; educational level; rural revitalization