引用本文:梁启章,齐清文※,张 岸,姜莉莉.大田种植数字农业信息流与技术体系[J].中国农业信息,2018,30(4):17-31
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大田种植数字农业信息流与技术体系
梁启章, 齐清文※, 张 岸, 姜莉莉
中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,资源与环境信息系统国家重点实验室,北京100101
摘要:
【目的】遵照国务院《数字农业建设试点总体方案(2017—2020 年)》,大田种植数字 农业建设将基于BNSS、4G、3S、IOT、CS 与AI 等高新技术,研究提出符合国情的数字农 业信息流模式,创建由“智能监测、智能控制与智慧管理”构成的农业生产过程管理系统。 【方法】文章通过概述国内外精准农业技术发展现状,研究了数字农业信息流及其技术体系, 根据数字农业信息源和信息时效性差异,提出不同信息流管理模式。【结果/ 结论】面对国 内集约化与半集约化经营现状,智慧管理系统既能定期发布“系列农情图、土壤肥力图、作 物产量图与变量作业处方图”等,满足分散经营者使用手机就能获得实时信息咨询服务;又 能远程监控农机运行,直接发送调度/ 导航信息与作业处方图,满足实施变量作业需求,并 能实时接收农机位置与物耗等信息,实时提供调度导航与进程管理服务,从而全面提高农 机作业效率。中国政府于1996 年启动的“信息化带动现代化”信息经济模式,推动了互联 网进村、线设备用户井喷式增长,北斗系统达到了高精度定位与计时,农机自动驾驶与精 准导航系统正在大力推广应用,土壤、作物与产量等监测传感器已经通过验收或鉴定,为建 设数字农业技术体系提供了必要的基础技术与装备,数字农业系统有望早日国产化并能推广 应用。
关键词:  数字农业;精准农业;智慧农业;信息流;技术体系
DOI:10.12105/j.issn.1672-0423.20180402
分类号:
基金项目:中国科学院现代农业示范与区域创新集群计划项目子课题“基于GIS 的精准农业辅助决策与可视化协同指挥调度系统研发”(CXJQ12010402)
Field planting digital agriculture information flowand technology system
Liang Qizhang, Qi Qingwen※, Zhang An, Jiang Lili
Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS/State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Beijing 100081, China
Abstract:
[Purpose]In accordance with the general plan of pilot digital agriculture construction released by the state council( 2017—2020), the construction of digital agriculture for field crops needs to use high and new technology,including 4G,3S,Iot,and AI.It further needs to design new digital agriculture information flow model and to develop intelligent monitoring and control system for the agricultural production processing management. [Method]The paper firstly reviewed the status of precision agriculture development in China and oversea,analyzed the digital agricultural information flow and its relevant technical system. Then different information flow management models are proposed according to the differences in the data sources and temporal characteristics.[Results/conclusion]Regarding the status of intensive and semi-intensive management,a smart management system can not only regularly release the crop growth map,soil fertility map,crop yield map,and management solution map to meet the requirements of information from discrete mobile phone users,but also can control the agricultural machines remotely,including sending/receiving navigation management solution map.It will satisfy the requirement of management solution,and timely receive the location and material consumption of agricultural machines,it will also be able to provide dispatching navigation and process management services,which would finally improve the working efficiency of agricultural machines.Since the adoption of the“ informationization prompted modernization” model by the Chinese government in 1996,the internet has been popularized in rural area, and the users of wireless have been increased markedly.The BEIDOU system is able to provide accurate location and time information,which have been widely used in the agricultural machinery automatic driving and precision navigation system.The sensors for soil,crop and yield monitoring have been qualified,which provide supports for the development of digital agricultural technological system in terms of basic techniques and equipment.Such systems are expected to be used for localization applications.
Key words:  digital agriculture;precision agriculture;wisdom agricultural;information flow;technology system