|目的 通过寒地水稻用水模型及算法的梳理，研究灌溉用水在寒地水稻不同生育期进行控制灌溉的一般性规律问题，找到寒地水稻节水灌溉运行管理的理论基础和科学依据。方法 通过查阅大量相关文献，用文献综述法围绕水稻用水模型及算法展开梳理，对国内外已有的技术理论和研究体系重点进行探讨，为提高水稻用水效率及水稻节水灌溉运行管理提供科学依据。结果 国内外对用水模型的研究有的以彭曼公式为基础进行修正，有的针对水稻田间环境单一因素进行建模，有的由单因素逐渐扩展到多个因素，但这些模型多适用于国外和南方的水稻种植区域，对适应北方一季水稻种植的用水模型研究较少。结论 我国水稻用水模型研究还处于起步阶段，部分技术难题还未攻克。加强水稻用水模型的研究，需要与农学农艺相结合，更要信息化技术、物联网技术的支持。增进用水模型的实用化进程，可以提高我国农业用水效率，保证区域农业可持续健康稳定发展。
|关键词: 寒地水稻 节水灌溉 用水模型 算法
|A review of water saving irrigation models for rice in cold regions
Li Aichuan,Sang Yining,Liu Xuanji,Liu Guanxiong
College of Electrical and Information，Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University，Daqing 163319，China
|Purpose The Sanjiang Plain is an important agricultural production base in China. Its production capacity is very large. However the groundwater level has fallen dramatically in recent years，thus the deficiencies in development have been highlighted. The application of water-saving irrigation measures and techniques to rice in cold regions can reduce the waste of agricultural water. It is urgent and necessary to study the water-saving irrigation water model for rice in cold regions. In order to better manage irrigation water in the cold rice growing area，this paper aims to explore the different irrigation control models by developing algorithms that examine the irrigation efficiency at different growing stages.Method By consulting a large number of relevant literatures，this paper reviewed the water use models and algorithms of rice irrigation. It further discussed the existing theory and application system in China and abroad，in order to provide a scientific basis for improving water use efficiency of rice and water-saving irrigation operation and management of rice.Result Some researches on water use models were based on the Penman formula，some were focused on a single factor in the environment of rice field，some were gradually extended from single factors to multiple factors. However，most of these models are suitable for rice cultivation in foreign countries and in the south China，little attention has been paid to the single rice cultivation in the cold northern area. of China.Conclusion The research on rice water use model in China is still in its infancy，and some technical problems have not yet been tackled. To improve the research of rice water use model，it is necessary to integrate knowledge from agronomy and it needs the support from information technology and Internet of Things technology. Improving the practical process of water use model can improve the efficiency of agricultural water use and ensure the sustainable，healthy and stable development of regional agriculture.
|Key words: rice in cold regions water saving irrigation water model algorithm