引用本文:唐怀壮,陈秀生※,薛志原,李德建,邢晓铭.谷物收获机脱粒系统的发展[J].中国农业信息,2018,30(5):32-39
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谷物收获机脱粒系统的发展
唐怀壮1, 陈秀生※1, 薛志原1, 李德建1, 邢晓铭2
1.济南大学机械工程学院,山东 济南,250022;2.济南大学政法学院,山东 济南,250022
摘要:
【目的】总结归纳谷物收获机脱粒系统从产生到发展至今的结构形式和应用场合有利 于谷物收获机脱粒系统的综合研究。【方法】结合现有谷物收获机脱粒系统,运用综述法和 对比分析法,分析了谷物收获机脱粒系统的功能原理及结构特点。对影响脱粒质量的因素 展开分析,着重对谷物收获装置的发展进程和国内外现状进行对比分析,采取逐一描述的方 法,分别对几种脱粒系统作详细描述。【结果】通过对比分析指出脱粒系统结构形式的优缺 点及最佳应用场合,并对不同类型脱粒滚筒和凹板间隙组合作研究分析后,发现滚筒转速和 凹板间隙对收获质量的影响,体现在谷物颗粒破损与秸秆破碎方面。谷物颗粒破损严重,损 失增加;秸秆破碎严重,机器能耗增大。【结论】随着农业机械化和规模化的不断提高,目 前谷物收获机的发展进入新的阶段。为满足不同喂入量的需求,有不同类型脱粒滚筒和凹板 间隙组合。未来我国的农机将朝着智能化和高效化的方向发展,企业及时抓住这一关键时刻 转型升级,提高科技含量和人机交互性,从而指导我国农业生产,促进我国智能农业发展。
关键词:  谷物收获机;脱粒系统;高效收获
DOI:10.12105/j.issn.1672-0423.20180504
分类号:
基金项目:山东省农机装备研发创新计划项目(2016YF-027);山东省2018 年重点研发计划(重大科技创新工程)项目(2018CXGC0216)
Development of grain harvester threshing and cleaning system
Tang Huaizhuang1, Chen Xiusheng※1, Xue Zhiyuan1, Li Dejian1, Xing Xiaoming2
1.School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Jinan, Shandong Jinan 250022,China;2.School of Political Science and Law, University of Jinan, Shandong Jinan, 250022,China
Abstract:
[Purposes] In view of the current situation of insufficient system researches on grain harvester threshing system, and in order to make academic researches more systematic and organized, this paper reviews the structural forms and applications of grain harvester threshing system from its birth to its current development. Threshing is the core stage of grain harvesting. The threshing device is the carrier for harvesting on the grain combine harvester. Since the birth of the principle of threshing, it has been more than two hundred years of development. Its performance is an important indicator to measure the quality and efficiency of a grain harvester, for which the design, production and use are mostly concerned[. Method] The paper uses the review method and comparative analysis method, combining with the existing grain harvester threshing system, to analyze the functional principle and structural characteristics of the grain harvester threshing system and their research process. The factors affecting the quality of threshing are also analyzed. The development process of the grain harvesting device and the current situation in both China and abroad are compared and analyzed. The methods described one by one are used to describe several threshing systems in detail. In pace with today’s increasingly developed technology, the use of high-performance and high-power computers has enabled the performance analysis of threshing devices to enter a high-level stage, overcoming the problems of traditional technical means behind, such as low precision, and inaccurate results. There are two main factors that determine the threshing effect, which are the gap between the threshing drum and the gravure screen and the linear speed of the threshing drum. In the research process, the factors affecting the quality of threshing are analyzed, and the conclusions with practical engineering value are obtained[. Results] Through the comparative analysis, the advantages and disadvantages of the structural form of the threshing system and the best application are pointed out. After the cooperation analysis of different types of threshing drum and concave plate gap group, the influence of the drum rotation speed and the concave plate gap on the harvest quality is obtained. The results are in terms of grain breakage and straw breakage. The grain particles are seriously damaged and the loss is increased; the straw is broken seriously and the machine energy consumption is increased[. Conclusion] With the continuous improvement of agricultural mechanization and scale, the development of grain harvesters has entered in a new stage. There are different types of threshing drum and gravure gap combinations to meet the different feed requirements. In the future, China’s agricultural machinery will develop in the direction of higher level of intelligence and efficiency. Enterprises will seize this key opportunity to transform and upgrade products, improve scientific and technological content and human-computer interaction, improve the competitiveness of enterprise products and reduce the labor of laborers. The intensity and guidance of agricultural production in China are of great significance.
Key words:  grain harvester;threshing system;efficient harvest