引用本文:徐新朋,张佳佳,丁文成,仇少君,赵士诚,周卫,何萍※.基于产量反应的粮食作物养分专家系统微信版应用[J].中国农业信息,2019,31(6):74-84
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基于产量反应的粮食作物养分专家系统微信版应用
徐新朋, 张佳佳, 丁文成, 仇少君, 赵士诚, 周卫, 何萍※
中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所,北京100081
摘要:
【目的】针对我国小农户生产中肥料施用不合理导致肥料利用率低等现状,建立基于产量反应和农学效率的养分专家系统微信版,研究其在三大粮食作物上的应用效果。【方法】2017—2018 年在水稻、玉米和小麦主产区10个省份(吉林省、黑龙江省、湖北省、安徽省、江西省、湖南省、内蒙古自治区、山西省、山东省和河北省)开展了225个田间试验,从施肥量、产量、净效益和肥料利用率方面对养分专家系统微信版进行矫正和改进,每个试验包括6个处理:(1)NE 处理,基于养分专家系统推荐施肥处理;(2)FP 处理,基于农民习惯施肥措施处理;(3)ST 处理,基于测土施肥或当地农技部门推荐施肥处理;(4)基于NE 处理的不施氮处理;(5)基于NE 处理的不施磷处理;(6)基于NE 处理的不施钾处理。【结果】总体而言,与FP 和ST 处理相比,NE 处理降低了氮肥和磷肥施用量,平衡了钾肥用量,而水稻、玉米和小麦产量增加了0.1~0.6 t/hm2。NE 处理降低了肥料花费,但水稻、玉米和小麦均增加了净效益,与FP 相比,分别增加了1 798、895 和528 元/hm2;与ST 相比,分别增加了894、360 和365 元/hm2。【结论】应用大量的田间试验数据,采用计算机软件技术,形成了养分专家系统微信版,并通过田间验证进行了校正和改进。其在土壤测试条件不具备或测试结果不及时的情况下,养分专家系统是一种简便、易操作的指导施肥新方法。
关键词:  养分专家系统;粮食作物;产量反应;肥料利用率
DOI:10.12105/j.issn.1672-0423.20190608
分类号:
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目“粮食作物养分推荐方法与限量标准”(2016YFD0200101);国家自然科学基金项目“基于作物产量反应的水稻养分限量标准研究”(31801938);中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项(1610132019022)
Availability of Nutrient Expert WeChat version based on crop yield response for food crops
Xu Xinpeng, Zhang Jiajia, Ding Wencheng, Qiu Shaojun, Zhao Shicheng, Zhou Wei, He Ping※
Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081,China
Abstract:
[Purpose]A WeChat version Nutrient Expert(NE)is developed based on yield response and agronomic efficiency to solve low nutrient use efficiency caused by irrational fertilization from small-holder farms,and to study its application effect on three major food crops. [Method]In the current study,225 on-farm experiments were conducted in ten provinces (Jilin,Heilongjiang,Hubei,An’hui,Jiangxi,Hunan,Inner Mongolia,Shanxi,Shandong and Hebei)from 2017 to 2018,to optimize the effects of NE WeChat version from fertilizer application rate,grain yield,economic benefit and nutrient use efficiency aspects in rice,maize and wheat major production regions. Six treatments were designed in each experiment,including (1)fertilizer recommendation based on NE WeChat version,(2)farmers’ practices(FP),(3)soil testing or fertilizer recommendation based on local agricultural technology department (ST),and(4)~(6)nitrogen(N),phosphorus(P)and potassium(K)omission plots based on NE treatment,which were used for the calculation of nutrient use efficiencies.[Result] As compared to FP and ST treatments,NE reduced the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers application rate,and balanced the potassium fertilizer application rate across all sites,while the grain yield increased by 0.1~0.6 t/hm2 with NE treatment. The NE treatment reduced total fertilizer cost(TFC)and improved gross return above fertilizer cost(GRF),the GRF increased by 1 798,895 and 528 yuan/hm2 than that of FP treatment,and increased by 894,360 and 365 yuan/hm2 than that of ST treatment on rice,maize and wheat,respectively. [Conclusion]A comprehensive fertilizer recommendation method was simplified into NE WeChat version by using computer software technology,and the field validation was conducted to further improve this fertilizer recommendation.NE WeChat version is an easy-to-use method to attain fertilizer recommendation rate aiming to specific field when soil testing is not timely or available.
Key words:  Nutrient Expert system;food crop;yield response;nutrient use efficiency