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引用本文:余婧婧,王瑞波,常海涛,高明杰,王占海,莫际仙,高春雨.基于种养业融合的大兴安岭农垦种养结构优化研究[J].中国农业资源与区划,2017,38(10):228~236
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基于种养业融合的大兴安岭农垦种养结构优化研究
余婧婧1, 王瑞波2, 常海涛3, 高明杰1, 王占海4, 莫际仙1, 高春雨1
1.中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所,北京 100081;2.农业部农业生态与资源保护总站,北京 100125;3.大兴安岭农场管理局农业处,内蒙古呼伦贝尔 021000;4.内蒙古呼伦贝尔市农业广播电视学校,内蒙古海拉尔 021008
摘要:
[目的]种养业协调发展是促进我国农业供给侧结构性改革的重要方面。文章以大兴安岭农垦的种养业结构优化为研究对象,针对大兴安岭农垦种养业结构发展失衡等问题,构建了基于种养业协调发展的多目标线性规划模型。[方法]根据Matlab编程求解,模拟提出了该地区的种养业优化方案,并阐明了促进种养业协调发展的对策措施。[结果](1)通过优化调整,大兴安岭农垦种养结构得到优化,与2013~2015年平均相比,粮食作物种植面积减少2.26万hm2,经济作物种植面积增加了197万hm2,其中大豆种植面积减少1.16万hm2,玉米种植面积减少1.96万hm2,养殖业饲养规模大幅度增加,其中猪的养殖数量增加5.89倍,牛增加16.62倍,羊增加1.57倍,家禽增加了10.2倍。(2)通过优化调整,与2013~2015年平均水平相比,种养业综合效益显著提升,提高了48.81%,其中经济收益增加了93.92%,社会效益减少了6.06%,生态效益提高了6.13%,其中总化肥施用量减少13.15%,总作物需水量减少5.74%、相对生态价值降低0.77%。[结论]为进一步推进大兴安岭农垦种养业结构调整,迫切需要加强宣传,探索种养业结合发展新模式,加快废弃物处理新技术推广,制定扶持政策,促进种植业和养殖业形成良性循环。
关键词:  多目标线性规划 种养平衡 环境承载力 结构调整 优化方案
DOI:10.7621/cjarrp.1005-9121.20171032
分类号:F303;F302.2
基金项目:国家自然科学基金“麦玉轮作系统测土配方施肥碳贸易研究”(31200337); 国家自然科学基金“北方地区秸秆沼气集中供气工程冬季增温保温能源边际报酬分析”(41301626)
OPTIMIZATION OF CROP AND LIVESTOCK INDUSTRY IN DAXINGANLING AGRICULTURAL RECLAMATION BASED ON PLANTING-BREEDING BALANCE
Yu Jingjing1, Wang Ruibo2, Chang Haitao3, Gao Mingjie1, Wang Zhanhai4, Mo Jixian1, Gao Chunyu1
1.Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China;2.Rural Energy and Environment Agency, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100125, China;3.Daxinganling Agricultural Reclamation, Management Bureau of Agriculture, Hulunbeier, Neimenggu 021000, China;4.Hulun Buir Agricultural Radio and TV School, Hailar 021008
Abstract:
The coordinated development of the crop and livestock industry is an important aspect to promote the structural reform of agricultural supply side in China. Taking the structure optimization of crop and livestock industry in Daxinganling agricultural reclamation as an example, aiming at the imbalance development of the crop and livestock structure in Daxinganling agricultural reclamation, this paper constructed the multi-objective linear programming model based on the coordinated development of crop and livestock. According to the Matlab programming solution, the optimization plan of the crop and livestock industry in the region was put forward, and the countermeasures to promote the coordinated development of the crop and livestock industry were clarified. The results showed that: (1) Through the optimization and adjustment, the crop and livestock industry achieved balance in the region. From 2013 to 2015, the area of grain crops reduced by 339.6 thousand acres, the area of economic crops increased by 295.5 thousand acres, but the area soybean and corn acreage decreased by 174.7 thousand acres and 294.3 thousand acres. The livestock industry increased significantly. The number of pig breeding increased by 5.89 times, cattle increased by 16.62 times, sheep increased by 1.57 times, poultry increased by 10.2 times. (2) The comprehensive benefit of the crop and livestock industry increased by 48.81%, of which the economic, social and ecological benefits increased by 93.92%, 6.06% and 6.13% respectively. And the use of chemical fertilizer, the crop water demand and the relative ecological value reduced by 13.15%, 5.74% and 0.77%. In order to promote the structural adjustment of crop and livestock industry in Daxinganling agricultural reclamation, it was urgent to strengthen the publicity, explore the new model of the combination of the crop and livestock industry, accelerate the promotion of new technologies, formulate support policies, and promote the virtuous circle of the crop and livestock industry.
Key words:  the multi-objective linear programming  planting-breeding balance  environmental carrying capacity  structural adjustment  optimization plan
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