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引用本文:姚予龙,陈屹松,陈远生,赵彤彤,祝鑫海,潘璇,陈家兴,刘一凡,倪泽仁.基于精准识别指标体系的西藏贫困农牧民生计入户调研*——山南市8县抽样调查[J].中国农业资源与区划,2018,39(9):1~12
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基于精准识别指标体系的西藏贫困农牧民生计入户调研*——山南市8县抽样调查
姚予龙1,2, 陈屹松3, 陈远生1,2, 赵彤彤1,2,4, 祝鑫海5, 潘璇6, 陈家兴5, 刘一凡5, 倪泽仁5
1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京100101;2.中国科学院大学,北京100049;3.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京100101;4.5.齐鲁工业大学(山东省科学院),山东济南250014;5.北京林业大学,北京100083;6.西藏大学,拉萨850012
摘要:
[目的]深入研究西藏高原贫困人口生计状况与脱贫致富潜力,为精准扶贫提供决策参考。[方法]参照国家统计局标准范式和国务院扶贫办调查问卷,并结合当地资源条件、生产生活特征和民族习惯,设计建档立卡贫困户调查问卷。选择西藏自治区山南市8个县的42个预脱贫村入户调研,采取分层抽样法访谈建档立卡贫困户。[结果]对贫困家庭人口规模和结构、劳动力就业与技能、家庭收入和来源、生产成本、居住条件、用水安全、文化教育、医疗状况、社会保障、生活消费和支付能力等进行了调查,基于贫困家庭视角对主要致贫原因等进行了系统的统计和分析,获得了贫困农牧民生计状况较为详实的第一手数据。同步构建贫困人口精准识别指标测算表,对样本户逐个统计、分类、归纳,获得九大类指标分析数据,获得定量与定性分析结果。[结论]有效抽样调查贫困户238户, 9832%的家庭人均纯收入已经超过当地贫困标准线(3 312元), 9124%的家庭综合评估已经实现稳定脱贫, 6134%的家庭人均纯收入已经相当于或者超过了西藏自治区2016年农牧民人均可支配收入9 064元的水平。绝大部分贫困户已经实现稳定脱贫,不愁吃、不愁穿、居有其屋,教育、卫生、社会服务等有了显著改善,农牧民就业渠道逐渐拓宽,收入稳步增加。但是,仍有极少部分贫困家庭由于缺乏劳动力、家人长期患病或残疾、缺乏致富技术及手段、多子女上学负担重、缺乏发展资金、新建家庭基础条件差等原因而陷入困境难以自拔,需要政府、社会等各方面的持续扶持才能彻底摆脱贫困。
关键词:  精准识别西藏贫困农牧民入户调查农户生计
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC0502004); 国家科技支撑计划项目(2013BAC04B03)
LIVELIHOOD HOUSEHOLD SURVEY OF POVERTY FARMERS AND HERDSMEN IN TIBET BASED ON ACCURATE IDENTIFICATION INDEX SYSTEM*——SAMPLING SURVEY OF 8 COUNTIES IN SHANNAN CITY
Yao Yulong1,2, Chen Yisong3, Chen yuansheng1,2, Zhao Tongtong1,2,4, Zhu Xinhai5, Pan Xuan6, Chen Jiaxing5, Liu Yifan5, Ni Zeren5
1.Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101,China;2.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049,China;3.Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101,China;4.5.Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences), Jinan, Shandong 250353,China;5.Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083,China;6.Tibet University, Lhasa 850012,China
Abstract:
To study of the livelihood situation and potential of poverty alleviation in Tibet plateau will provide reference for accurate poverty alleviation. Referring to China National Bureau of Statistics Standard Paradigm and the household survey questionnaire formulated by the State Council Poverty Alleviation Office, the paper designed poor village questionnaires and poverty household questionnaires in combination with local natural resources, production and life characteristics and ethnic habits. Selected of 42 pre embarrassing village households in 8 counties in Shannan city, Tibet Autonomous Region, it adopted stratified sampling method to extract poverty family. Surveyed the population size and structure, labor employment and skills, family income and sources, production costs, living conditions, water security, cultural education, medical conditions, social security, household consumption, and ability to pay etc., the main causes of poverty were systematically analyzed to gain first hand data on the livelihoods of impoverished farmers and pastoralists from the perspective of poor families. Simultaneously constructed a calculation table for accurate identification indicators of poor people, 9 kinds of analysis data were obtained by statistics, classification and induction of the sample households one by one. And then got the quantitative and qualitative analysis results. In the valid sample survey of 238 poor households, 98.32% of households′ per capita net income had exceeded the local poverty standard line (3312 yuan). 91.24% of household comprehensive assessments had achieved stable poverty alleviation. 61.34% of households′ per capita net income had already equaled or exceeded the level of the per capita disposable income of 9 064 yuan for farmers and herdsmen in the Tibet Autonomous Region in 2016. The majority of poor households had achieved stable poverty alleviation. They were not worried about food, clothing and housing. Their conditions for education, health, and social services had improved significantly. Their employment channels had gradually broadened, and their income had steadily increased. However, there were still a small number of families who had long been in a difficult state, due to the lack of labor force, long term illness or disability of their families, lack of techniques and tools to get rich, heavy schooling burden for many children, and lack of development funds for new families, etc. It needed the sustained support from the government and society to eliminate poverty.
Key words:  accurate identification  Tibet  poor farmers and herdsmen  households survey  farmers′ livelihood
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