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引用本文:石祖梁,王久臣,李想,宋成军,孙仁华,王飞.我国秸秆沼气工艺特点、存在问题与对策建议[J].中国农业资源与区划,2018,39(9):25~30
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我国秸秆沼气工艺特点、存在问题与对策建议
石祖梁1,2, 王久臣1,2, 李想3, 宋成军3, 孙仁华3, 王飞1,2
1.农业农村部农业生态与资源保护总站,北京100125;2.农业农村部资源循环利用技术与模式重点实验室,北京100024;3.农业农村部农业生态与资源保护总站,北京100125
摘要:
[目的]为进一步提高农村清洁能源供应水平,改善农村用能结构,减少秸秆废弃和露天焚烧,推动农业绿色发展。[方法]在系统梳理我国秸秆沼气相关文献的基础上,全面分析了我国秸秆沼气面临的形势、主要技术工艺特点和存在的主要问题。[结果]我国秸秆沼气主要可分为8种工艺,包括竖向推流式厌氧消化工艺、全混式秸秆发酵技术、自载体生物膜秸秆沼气工艺、覆膜槽秸秆沼气技术、车库式秸秆干发酵工艺、一体化两相厌氧消化工艺、红泥塑料厌氧消化技术、分离式两相厌氧消化工艺等。目前发展秸秆沼气存在5个主要问题,包括秸秆收储运困难、预处理技术有待改进、进出料不便、高值化利用程度低、政策和服务体系不完善。[结论]提出了推进秸秆沼气发展的4个对策建议:推动秸秆收储运体系建设、强化秸秆沼气后续产品的开发利用、控制秸秆沼气工程对环境的污染、完善配套政策机制和服务体系。
关键词:  秸秆沼气工艺技术绿色发展存在问题建议
DOI:
分类号:X712
基金项目:国家社会科学基金项目(16CGL039),国家油菜产业技术体系秸秆与副产物综合利用岗位(CARS 12)
THE TECHNOLOGY FEATURE, PROBLEM AND RESEARCH PROSPECT OF BIOGAS PROJECT WITH CROP STRAW IN CHINA
Shi Zuliang1,2, Wang Jiuchen1,2, Li Xiang3, Song Chengjun3, Sun Renhua3, Wang Fei1,2
1. Rural Energy and Environment Agency, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100125, China;2. Key Laboratory of Technologies and Models for Cyclic Utilization from Agricultural Resources,Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100024, China;3.Rural Energy and Environment Agency, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100125, China
Abstract:
The biogas project for crop straws, which can not only recycle crop straws, improve the rural environment and reduce the greenhouse gas emissions, but also solve the limitations of region and feedstock faced by current biogas projects which is with manure as feedstock, it is a clear and efficient utilization way for crop straws in China. Based on the systematic review of the literature on straw biogas in China, the situation of the straw biogas, the main technical process characteristics and the main problems were analyzed. China′s straw biogas could be divided into 8 kinds of processes, including vertical push flow anaerobic digestion process, full mix straw fermentation technology, self supporting biofilm straw biogas process, coated trough straw biogas technology, garage type straw dry fermentation process, integrated two phase anaerobic digestion process, red mud plastic anaerobic digestion technology and separate two phase anaerobic digestion process. At present, there were five main problems in the development of straw biogas, including difficulties in collection and storage of straw, improvement of pretreatment technology, inconvenience of input and discharge, low utilization of high value, and imperfect policies and service systems. In conclusion, four countermeasures for promoting the development of straw biogas were put forward, including promoted the construction of straw storage and transportation system, strengthened the development and utilization of straw biogas products, controlled the environmental pollution of straw biogas project, and improved the supporting policy mechanism and service system.
Key words:  crop straw  biogas project  fermentation process  green development  actual problem  countermeasure
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