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引用本文:吴园.中国柑橘种植业技术效率评估及影响因素分析[J].中国农业资源与区划,2018,39(9):94~102
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中国柑橘种植业技术效率评估及影响因素分析
吴园
重庆市农业科学院,重庆401329
摘要:
[目的]研究中国柑橘种植业的技术效率、变化趋势及其影响因素,为柑橘种植行业效率评价和政策引导提供借鉴。[方法]采用超越对数生产函数随机前沿分析模型,利用我国8个柑橘主产省市2007—2015年的柑橘种植经营的面板数据,分类测算了柑橘种植技术效率、时序演变规律,并对影响因素了进行了分析。[结果](1)柑橘种植技术效率整体上呈现上升趋势,橘类生产技术效率整体平均水平高于柑类,柑类的生产种植技术效率由026提升到085,橘类的生产种植技术效率在083-095区间窄幅振动; (2)柑橘生产种植技术效率存在区域差异,东部省份和西部省份的柑类生产种植平均技术效率基本持平,中部省份的柑类种植生产技术效率相对处于低位,而西部地区的橘类生产技术效率整体上呈现显著的上升趋势;(3)化肥和农药为主的直接物资与服务投入对柑橘产出的增长效果具有负效应;(4)橘类的种植经营中存在显著的规模经济效应,柑类的规模经济效应不显著。[结论]技术进步在柑橘生产种植中正在发挥重要作用,单纯的依靠化肥、农业和劳动的投入增长,会带来效率的损失; 生产规模的提高有助于柑橘生产的技术效率提升; 在柑橘生产种植需要转换增长动能,更加注重柑橘生产过程中的有机、绿色属性,提升生产经营规模,实现适度规模经营,促进技术效率的提高,进而促进柑橘种植者的收入水平,实现产业扶贫的目标。
关键词:  柑橘种植技术效率趋势分析随机前沿模型超越对数生产函数
DOI:
分类号:F224.0;F326.13
基金项目:重庆市科委科技服务平台项目“山地数字农业研发服务中心能力建设”(cstc2015ptfw ggfw80001); 重庆市2017农业综合开发项目“加快农业科技成果应用专题研究”
TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY EVALUATION AND INFLUENCING FACTORS ANALYSIS OF CITRUS PLANTING IN CHINA
Wu Yuan
Chongqing Agricultural Sciences Academy, Chongqing, 401329
Abstract:
The objective of this paper was to study the technical efficiencies, the changing trends and the influencing factors of citrus planting in China, in order to provide references for the efficiency evaluation and policy guidance of citrus planting industry. Based on the panel data of 8 citrus planting provinces from 2007 to 2015, using the stochastic frontier analysis model of the logarithmic production function, the paper calculated the technical efficiencies and temporal evolution trends of citrus planting,and analyzed the influencing factors of efficiencies. The results showed that:(Ⅰ)The technical efficiency of citrus planting was an overall upward trend as a whole, and the average level of technical efficiency of tangerines planting was higher than that of oranges, and the technical efficiency of oranges planting increased from 0.26 to 0.85, and the technical efficiency of tangerines planting was narrowly vibrated in the range from 0.83 to 0.95.(Ⅱ)There were regional differences in the technical efficiencies of citrus planting, and the average technical efficiency of oranges planting in the eastern and western provinces was roughly the same, the technical efficiencies of oranges planting in the central provinces were relatively low, while the technical efficiencies of tangerines planting in the western region as a whole appeared a significant upward trend.(Ⅲ)Direct inputs of materials and services, mainly fertilizer and pesticides, had negative effect on the growth of citrus outputs.④There were significant economies of scale in the tangerines planting, while the economies of scale of oranges were not significant in oranges planting. Technological progress played an important role in the cultivation of citrus. Simply relying on the input of more fertilizers, pesticides and labor would bring loss of efficiency, and increasing the scale of planting to improve the technical efficiencies of citrus planting. Citrus planting needed to find new growth momentum, payed more attention to the high quality varieties and excellent planting methods, as well as the organic attributes, and expanded the scale of production and operation, achieved moderate scale planting, which was good for improving technical efficiency of citrus planting. Thus, promoted the level of citrus planters′ income and achieved the goal of industrial poverty alleviation.
Key words:  citrus planting  technical efficiency  trend analysis  random frontier model  transcendental logarithmic production function
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