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引用本文:易小燕,吴勇,尹昌斌,程明,张赓,郑育锁.以色列水土资源高效利用经验对我国农业绿色发展的启示[J].中国农业资源与区划,2018,39(10):37~42
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以色列水土资源高效利用经验对我国农业绿色发展的启示
易小燕1, 吴勇2, 尹昌斌1, 程明3, 张赓2, 郑育锁4
1.中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所,北京100081;2.全国农业技术推广服务中心,北京100026;3.北京市农业技术推广站,北京100029;4.天津市农业技术推广站,天津300061
摘要:
[目的]水土资源高效利用是农业绿色发展的重点环节,以色列水土资源匮乏,却在短短几十年迈入世界农业最发达的国家行列,因此,总结以色列的水土资源高效利用方式与经验,为我国农业绿色发展提供经验借鉴。[方法]文章运用实地调查法和归纳总结法,对以色列水土资源状况和农业水土资源利用状况进行了分析,总结归纳了以色列农业绿色发展的经验,提出了对我国农业绿色发展的启示。[结果]以色列水土资源高效利用的经验:(1)法律先行,强化水土资源管理,通过用水配额制、阶梯水价和水资源节约机制对水资源进行管理; 通过加强审批、农业用地租赁制和多部门监管进行土地资源管理; (2)效率优先,大力发展节水农业,通过温室技术、滴管技术等提高水资源利用效率; (3)科技引领,不断创新资源高效利用技术;(4)公众参与,重视资源节约宣传教育。[结论]以色列水土资源高效利用启示我国农业绿色发展需要从以下几方面着手:(1)加强水土资源管理,建立自主节约机制;(2)大力推广应用资源节约新技术,提高资源利用效率;(3)加大科技创新与推广应用服务,实现农业绿色发展落地生根;(4)培养全民节约意识,全民推动绿色生产与生活方式。
关键词:  以色列水土资源高效利用农业绿色发展经验启示
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基金项目:中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项(1610132018010);国家社科基金重大项目“生态补偿与乡村绿色发展协同推进体制机制与政策体系研究”(18ZDA048);农业农村部软科学项目(Z2018096)
THE ENLIGHTENMENT OF ISRAEL′S EFFICIENT UTILIZATION OF LAND AND WATER RESOURCES TO THE GREEN DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE IN CHINA
Yi Xiaoyan1, Yi Xiaoyan2, Yin Changbin1, Cheng Ming3, Zhang Geng2, Zheng Yusuo4
1.Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081;2.National Agricultural Technology Extension Service Center, Beijing 100026,China;3.Beijing Agricultural Technology Promotion Station, Beijing 100101;4.Tianjin Agricultural Technology Promotion Station, Tianjin 300061
Abstract:
The efficient use of land and water resources is a key link in the green development of agriculture. In Israel, where water and land resources are scarce, it has entered the world′s most advanced agricultural industry in just a few decades. Therefore, Israel′s efficient use of water and land resources and its experience were summarized and provided experience for the green development of China′s agriculture. Field investigation and inductive summaries were used to analyze the state of land and water resources in Israel and the status of the utilization of agricultural land and water resources in Israel. The Israel′s agricultural green development experience was summarized and the enlightenment for the green development of agriculture in China was put forward. The results showed that Israel′s experience in the efficient use of land and water resources lied in the following:First, the law precedent; the management of land and water resources was strengthened; water resources were managed through the water quota system, stepped water price, and water resource saving mechanism; and through strengthening the examination and approval, agricultural land lease system and multi sector supervision for land resource management; second, efficiency was prioritized, water saving agriculture was vigorously developed, water use efficiency was improved through greenhouse technologies, pipette management technologies, etc.; third, technology lead and innovation of resources made efficient use of technology; and fourth, the public participate, attaching importance to resource conservation and education. The efficient use of land and water resources in Israel suggested that the green development of agriculture in China need to start from the following aspects: First, strengthen the management of water and land resources and establish an autonomous conservation mechanism; Second, vigorously promote the application of new technologies for resource conservation and improve the efficiency of resource use; Major scientific and technological innovation and promotion and application services, to achieve the roots of agricultural green development; Fourth, to cultivate awareness of the people′s conservation, the people promote green production and lifestyle.
Key words:  Israel  land and water resources  efficient use  agricultural green development  experience revelation
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