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引用本文:赵旭,王祎,段跃芳.就业结构调整对水库移民土地流转的影响研究*——以南水北调中线工程移民为例[J].中国农业资源与区划,2018,39(10):204~212
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就业结构调整对水库移民土地流转的影响研究*——以南水北调中线工程移民为例
赵旭1,2, 王祎3, 段跃芳4
1.三峡大学经济与管理学院,湖北宜昌443002;2.三峡大学水库移民研究中心,湖北宜昌443002;3.三峡大学经济与管理学院,湖北宜昌443002;4.三峡大学水库移民研究中心,湖北宜昌443002
摘要:
[目的]为促进水库移民的生计恢复及转型,探寻就业结构和土地流转间的交互机制,分析两者间耦合作用对当前移民安置模式及政策的影响。[方法]文章从移民就业结构变迁出发,通过超边际理论构建了安置区移民土地的流转机制模型,推演了从业决策对土地流转行为的影响路径,并运用南水北调农业安置移民数据进行实证检验。[结果]大面积转出土地是移民搬迁后土地处置的主要行为,移民中土地转入户有所增加,但土地集中度却有所减少。移民非农就业较搬迁前有明显上升,并有向当地兼业转移的趋势,但与土地流转间并不互为因果,农村社保还难以弱化其对土地养老的依赖。劳动力数量、非农就业时间、非农收入占比、土地政策等对移民土地流转行为和规模均有显著影响,而外出就业前景和地租水平在促进土地流转行为的同时,却不一定能增加土地流转面积。[结论]移民外迁中可以采用无土安置代替农业安置,推动移民土地流转的关键在于技能培训、政策保障和地租补贴,简单的就业推荐和土地权属划分的作用有限。而对于移民中的农业大户,则需在满足土地转入面积的基础上,保障其在安置区的各项土地权益。
关键词:  水库移民就业结构土地流转行为土地流转规模南水北调工程安置区
DOI:
分类号:F30124; D6324
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目“基于非线性实证和社会计算的水库移民社会融合机制研究”(71401090); 国家社会科学基金重大项目“移民工程的跨学科研究”(13&ZD172); 宜昌市软科学研究计划项目“社会网络视角下城市应急管理研究”(A16 30308)
STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF THE EMPLOYMENT STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT ON LAND TRANSFER OF RESERVOIR RESETTLEMENT*——BASED ON IMMIGRANTS IN SOUTH TO NORTH WATER DIVERSION PROJECT
Zhao Xu1,2, Wang Yi3, Duan Yuefang4
1.College of Economic & Management, China Three Gorges University, Yichang, Hubei 443002,China;2. Research Center for Reservoir Resettlement, China Three Gorges University, Yichang, Hubei 443002, China;3.College of Economic & Management, China Three Gorges University, Yichang, Hubei 443002,China;4.Research Center for Reservoir Resettlement, China Three Gorges University, Yichang, Hubei 443002, China
Abstract:
In order to facilitate the livelihood recovery and livelihood patterns transformation of reservoir migrants in the resettlement area, this paper explored the interaction mechanism of the employment structure and land circulation, andanalyzed the impact of the coupling effect between them on the current resettlement modeland policy. Starting from the change of the employment structure of migrants, this paper constructed the transfer mechanism modelof the compensation land in the resettlement areabased onthe super marginaltheory.It deducedthe influence path of the resettlement decision making on land transferbehavior under the complete division of labor structure and part time model.Furthermore,through the field investigation of the resettlement areas in Hubei and Henan provinces of the Middle Route Project of the South to North Water Transfer Project, the model was tested by the data of land transfer and livelihood differentiation of the agricultural resettlement migrants. The result showed that the large scale land transferwas the main behavior of land disposal after the relocation of migrants, and the transfer of land to households had increased, however,the degree of land concentration haddecreased.Furthermore, the proportion of migrants′ non agricultural employment had increased significantly before the relocation, and there was a tendency totransfer from the migrant workers to the local part time workers. However,there was no cause and effect relationship betweenthe non agricultural employment and land transfer. It was still difficult for the rural social security to weaken its reliance on land endowment. The number of labor force, non agricultural employment time, non agricultural income ratio and land policyall had a significantimpact on the migration land transfer behavior and scale of resettlement land. On the other hand, the employment prospects and land rent level promoted land transfer behavior, butnot necessarily increased the land circulation area. Based on the above analysis, in the process of resettlement, landless resettlement could be used instead of agricultural resettlement. The key to promoting the transfer of immigrant land was skill training, policy guarantee and land rent subsidy. The simple employment recommendation and the division of land ownership were limited.
Key words:  reservoir resettlement  employment structure  land transfer behavior  land transfer scale  South North Water Diversion Project
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