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引用本文:李穗英,胡志强.基于GIS的青海省贫困人口空间分布探析[J].中国农业资源与区划,2019,40(4):172~179
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基于GIS的青海省贫困人口空间分布探析
李穗英1, 胡志强2
1.青海省农业资源区划研究所,西宁81000;2.青海师范大学地理科学学院,西宁81000
摘要:
[目的]贫困人口脱贫是一项长期而又重大的任务,摸清贫困人口的空间分布格局和特征,是新阶段精准扶贫工作的核心和关键。通过分析青海省贫困人口规模、分布情况,得出贫困人口的空间分布格局和特征。[方法]文章在GIS软件和GeoDa软件的支持下,采用不均衡指数、集中指数和洛伦兹曲线法来测度青海省贫困人口分布的集中化程度,使用青海省贫困人口等数据,在空间上对青海省贫困分布现状进行了刻画。[结果]通过分析得出:青海东部农业区和青南牧业区的贫困人口为两个高值区,柴达木工矿区贫困人口分布较少,呈现出明显的地域分异; 贫困发生率与贫困人口分布对比分析得出:柴达木地区贫困人口数最少,贫困发生率也是全省最低的区域; 东部地区贫困人口分布是全省最多的区域,但因其人口基数大,贫困发生率低于平均贫困发生率; 三江源地区贫困人口数分布较多,因其人口基数较小,该区域为全省贫困发生率最高的区域; 计算结果得出,青海省分县贫困发生率Moran′I指数为0572,检验结果显著,说明全省县域贫困发生率存在着正相关性,说明贫困发生率相似的县域存在着空间集聚现象。[结论]青海省贫困人口空间分布不均衡是总的特征,根据计算所得结果将全省划分为5种贫困类型区域:消除贫困区、一级贫困区、二级贫困区、三级贫困区和四级贫困区。从自然资源、生态环境和劳动力素质等方面对各贫困区贫困原因进行分析,并提出对策。
关键词:  青海省GIS贫困人口贫困发生率贫困特征
DOI:
分类号:C92
基金项目:青海省“十三五”脱贫攻坚规划项目
ANALYSIS ON SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF POOR POPULATION IN QINGHAI PROVINCE BASED ON GIS
Li Suiying1, Hu Zhiqiang2
1.Agricultural Resources Division Institute of Qinghai Province, Xining, Qinghai 81000, China;2.Qinghai Normal University School Of Geographic Science, Xining, Qinghai 81000, China
Abstract:
Poverty alleviation is a long term and important task, and the spatial distribution pattern and characteristics of the poverty stricken population are the core and key of targeted poverty alleviation in new stage. The spatial distribution pattern and characteristics of the poor population can be calculated by analyzing the scale and distribution of poverty in Qinghai province. With the support of GIS software and Geo Da software, this research measured the degree of centralization of poverty population in Qinghai province by using the unbalanced index, concentration index and lorentz curve method. Moreover, it described the space distribution of poverty status in Qinghai province through combining the data of poverty stricken population in Qinghai province. It is concluded that the poor population in the agricultural area of the eastern part of Qinghai and the pastoral area in the southern part of Qinghai are two high value areas, and the poor population distribution in Qaidam mining area is less, showing obvious regional differentiation. The comparative analysis of the incidence of poverty and the distribution of poverty stricken population show that the poverty rate in Qaidam area is the lowest, and the incidence of poverty is the lowest in the province. The distribution of poverty in the eastern region is the largest in the province, but because of its large population, the incidence of poverty is lower than the average poverty rate. The number of poor people in Sanjiangyuan region is more distributed, and the region has the highest incidence of poverty in the whole province because of its small population. The result show that the Moran′I index of poverty incidence is 0.572 in each county of Qinghai province, and the test results are significant. There is a positive correlation between incidence of poverty and a phenomenon of spatial agglomeration among the counties with similar incidence of poverty in Qinghai province. As per the analysis, the Qinghai province is categorized into 5 types of poverty stricken areas, namely the elimination of poverty stricken areas, first grade poverty stricken areas, secondary poverty stricken areas, tertiary poverty stricken areas and four level poverty stricken areas. Based on such classification, it analyzed the causes of poverty and proposes some countermeasures from the aspects of natural resources, ecological environment and quality of labor force.
Key words:  Qinghai province  GIS  poverty population  poverty incidence  poverty features
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