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引用本文:王海华,冯广朋,吴斌,张燕萍,胡火根,庄平.长江水系中华绒螯蟹资源保护与可持续利用管理对策研究[J].中国农业资源与区划,2019,40(5):93~100
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长江水系中华绒螯蟹资源保护与可持续利用管理对策研究
王海华1,2, 冯广朋1, 吴斌2, 张燕萍2, 胡火根3, 庄平1
1.中国水产科学研究院东海水产研究所,农业部东海与远洋渔业资源开发利用重点实验室,上海200090;2.江西省水产科学研究所,南昌330039;3.江西省水产技术推广站,南昌330046
摘要:
[目的]为保护我国中华绒螯蟹天然资源,完善资源管理制度,制定可持续的资源开发利用政策。[方法]采用文献调研、政策分析和统筹研究等方法,在总结剖析我国中华绒螯蟹资源开发与管理实践的经验教训基础上,针对影响中华绒螯蟹资源可持续利用存在的水利工程、湖泊围垦、水质污染、酷鱼滥捕等主要问题,综合应用资源生态、资源管理等多学科理论开展研究分析。[结果]提出了5条中华绒螯蟹资源可持续利用管理策略:(1)扩大放流规模,加强增殖保护,尽快恢复中华绒螯蟹资源和自然种群规模; (2)控制捕捞强度,落实限额捕捞制度,全面保护好中华绒螯蟹亲蟹、抱卵蟹、幼蟹和蟹苗资源; (3)强化渔政管理,加强巡航检查,及时取缔各种有害渔具渔法,严厉查处违规非法捕捞行为; (4)加强资源监测,科学评价放流效果,指导资源增殖管理与可持续利用; (5)开展种质管理,建立中华绒鳌蟹种质评价标准,防止种质混杂和退化。[结论]建议中华绒螯蟹资源保护要坚持保护优先原则,加强水污染治理,理顺监管体制,建立增殖放流及相关配套制度,以及加大资源保护宣传力度等。
关键词:  中华绒螯蟹渔业资源管理可持续利用政策研究长江流域
DOI:
分类号:S937
基金项目:上海市中华绒螯蟹产业技术体系(沪农科产字2017-4号)、江西省现代农业产业技术体系(JXARS 10)和农业农村部物种品种资源保护费项目(171821301354052136)
RESEARCH ON MANAGEMENT AND COUNTERMEASURES OF SUSTAINABLE UTILIZATION OF ERIOCHEIR SINENSIS OF YANGTZE POPULATION
Wang Haihua1,2, Feng Guangpeng1, Wu Bin2, Zhang Yanping2, Hu Huogen3, Zhuang Ping1
1.East China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Key Laboratory of East ChinaSea and Oceanic Fishery Resources Exploitation and Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Shanghai 200090,China;2.Jiangxi Institute for Fisheries Sciences,Nanchang, Jiangxi 330039,China;3.Jiangxi Aquaculture Technology Spreading Center,Nanchang, Jiangxi 330046,China
Abstract:
This study aims toprotect the Eriocheir sinensis resources, improve the resource management system and formulate sustainable resource development and utilization policies in China. On the basis of summarizing the experience and lessons of the development and management of Eriocheir sinensis resources, this study used literature research, policy analysis and methods of research as a whole, aiming at the main problems affecting the sustainable utilization of Eriocheir sinensis resources, such as water conservancy projects, lakes reclamation, water quality pollution, and overfishing, comprehensive application of resource ecology, resource management and other multidisciplinary theories to carry out research and analysis, and then five strategies for sustainable utilization of Eriocheir sinensis resources were proposedas follows. Firstly, expanding the scale of release, strengthening the protection of proliferation to restore the natural population size of Eriocheir sinensis as soon as possible. Secondly, to control the fishing intensity and implement the quota fishing system to fully protect theresources of the crab, berried crab, young crab and crab seedlings.Thirdly, strengthening the administration of fisheries, increasing cruise inspections, eliminating all kinds of harmful fishing and fishing laws, and cracking down on illegal fishing practices. Fourthly, strengthening resources monitoring, scientific assessment of the flow, guiding the management and sustainable use of resources. Finally, conducting the management of the species and establishing the germplasm evaluation standard of Eriocheir sinensis to prevent the germplasm hybridization and germplasm degeneration of the species. At last it also put forward suggestions, such as adhering to the principle of protecting priority, strengthening the management of water pollution, rationalizing the regulatory system, establishing the system of proliferating and discharging, and strengthening the publicity ofresources protection.
Key words:  Eriocheir sinensis  fishery resources management  sustainable utilization  policy research  the Yangtze river basin
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