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引用本文:毕于运,高春雨,王红彦,王萍,王亚静.我国农作物秸秆离田多元化利用现状与策略[J].中国农业资源与区划,2019,40(9):1~11
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我国农作物秸秆离田多元化利用现状与策略
毕于运1,高春雨1,王红彦2,王萍3,王亚静1※
1.中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所,北京100081; 2.中国农业科学院农业信息研究所,北京100081;3. 中国热带农业科学院,海南海口571101
摘要:
[目的]对全国秸秆堆沤肥料化利用量、秸秆新型能源化利用量、农户秸秆直接燃用量、秸秆新型产业化利用量进行系统估算,并结合问题分析和发展需求,提出进一步提升我国秸秆离田多元化利用水平的策略,以期为国家秸秆综合利用提供决策支持。[方法]以全国“十二五”秸秆综合利用情况终期评估结果为基础,通过实地调研和文献分析,对全国秸秆离田利用量进行估算和分析。[结果](1)2015年,全国秸秆离田利用总量为346亿t,占全国秸秆已利用量的4799%; (2)全国秸秆饲料化利用量为169亿t,占秸秆离田利用总量的4884%; (3)全国秸秆堆肥利用量约为1 400万t,其中工厂化堆肥利用秸秆量约为400万t; (4)秸秆新型能源化利用量约为2 000万~2 400万t,农户直接燃用秸秆量约为085亿t; (5)全国秸秆新能源、工厂化堆肥、原料化等新型产业利用量约为048亿~052亿t,占秸秆离田利用总量的1224%~1337%。[结论]未来,我国秸秆离田多元化利用应建立新型的农牧结合制度和具有中国特色的多元组合施肥制度,打造以废弃秸秆为主要消纳对象的秸秆产业化体系,并努力提高秸秆打包离田机械作业质量和秸秆新型产业高值化利用水平。
关键词:  秸秆离田多元化利用新型产业化利用现状策略
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目“农作物秸秆综合利用生态价值量估算方法研究” (41771569)“北方地区秸秆沼气集中供气工程冬季增温保温能源边际报酬分析”(41301626); 中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项(1610132018043)“东北地区玉米秸秆还田技术体系研究”
RESEARCH ON THE PRSENT SITUATION AND CORRESPONDING STRATEGIES OF OFF FIELD STRAW COLLECTION AND COMPREHENSIVE UTILIAZATION IN CHINA
Bi Yuyun1, Gao Chunyu1, Wang Hongyan2, Wang Ping3, Wang Yajing1※
1. Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China;2. Institute of Agricultural Information, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China; 3. Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, Haikou,Hainan 571101, China
Abstract:
The diversified utilization of off field straw in China includes forage utilization, fuel utilization, base material utilization, raw material utilization and compost. This research aims at estimating the utilization amount of straw served as compost, new energy, fuels burnt directly by farmers and raw materials for new industrialization system, analyzing the problems and future development needs lying in off field straw utilization. Consequently, some measures and strategies are put forward. It is expected to improve the straw off field utilization level and provide decision support for the nation′s comprehensive utilization of crop straw. With field investigation and literature analysis, the estimate and the subsequent analysis were based on the final assessment results of comprehensive utilization of straw during the 12th Five year Plan Period. Year of 2015 saw 346 million tons of off field straw utilized which was 47.99% of the total straw utilization. 169 million tons of straw, up to 48.84% of the off field straw utilization got processed to forage. Among the 14 million tons of straw for compost, 4 million was for factory compost. 20 24 million tons of straw was for new energy conversion while for the fuels directly burnt by the farmers was 850 million tons. 480~520 million tons straw was put into new energy, factory compost and raw materials, which ran 12.24%~13.37% of the total off field amount. Based on the existing problems and future development needs about off field straw utilization, the comprehensive utilization strategies are proposed. Firstly, the future diversified off field straw utilization calls for a combined farming and animal husbandry system with the integration of planting and breeding, scale and standardization as the main business organization mode. Secondly, it calls for a multi combination fertilization system with Chinese characteristics which gives full consideration to the practical economy of all kinds of crop cultivation and the main interest drive of farmers to purchase and apply commercial organic fertilizer. Thirdly, it is necessary to improve the quality of straw packing and field removal machinery in view of the straw packaging from the field is the basic operation of multiple use of straw from the field. Fourthly, a straw industrialization system with waste straw as the main consumption object is to be established so as to reduce non point source pollution mainly caused by the waste of fruits and vegetables, and to develop a new energy industry taking cotton stalk, rape stalk, tobacco stalk and other wood straw as raw materials. Finally, strive to promote the high value utilization level of the new straw industry.
Key words:  off field straw  comprehensive utilization  new industrial utilization  present situation  corresponding strategies
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