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引用本文:董光龙,许尔琪,张红旗.华北平原不同乡村发展类型农村居民点的比较研究[J].中国农业资源与区划,2019,40(11):1~8
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华北平原不同乡村发展类型农村居民点的比较研究
董光龙1, 2,许尔琪3,张红旗3※
1.山东建筑大学管理工程学院,济南250101; 2.资源与环境信息系统国家重点实验室,北京100049; 3.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,陆地表层格局与模拟重点实验室,北京100049
摘要:
[目的]通过比较华北平原农业主导型、工业主导型、第三产业主导型和均衡发展型农村居民点的空间形态和演变特征,为合理规划和管理农村居民点用地,实现乡村振兴提供科学参考。[方法]借助eCognition developer 89软件,采用面向对象的方法解译获取1990年和2015年两期农村居民点空间数据; 根据县域中各产业发展水平来划分乡村发展类型; 比较不同乡村发展类型农村居民点的数量、规模、密度、形状等的变化特征。[结果](1)不同乡村发展类型县域内农村居民点在数量、平均斑块面积、密度和面积占比等方面均有很大差异性。农业主导型县域内农村居民点具有数量多、密度高、单个斑块规模小、总规模大、面积占比大等特征; 工业主导型县域内农村居民点则呈现出数量少、密度低、单个斑块规模大、形状不规则和总规模较小等特点; 第三产业主导型县域内农村居民点的平均斑块面积最小,面积占比最低。(2)不同乡村发展类型县域内农村居民点演变的差异性主要表现在数量和总面积等方面。农业主导型县域内农村居民点演变的主要特征为数量和面积的双高增长; 工业主导型县域则呈现出数量增加较少、面积增加较多,并伴随形状更复杂的特征。第三产业主导型农村居民点的变化在各乡村发展类型中最小,并且农村居民点数量和平均斑块面积均略有减少趋势; 均衡发展型县域内农村居民点的变化主要表现为数量增加,在各乡村发展类型中数量增加最多。[结论]不同类型农村居民点的空间分布和变化差异明显,农村居民点的管控应分类施策,因地制宜,加强制度创新,使不具备区位优势和特殊资源禀赋的地区享有同等的发展权,分类实现乡村振兴。
关键词:  农村居民点乡村发展类型演变乡村振兴华北平原
DOI:
分类号:K9018
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(41801173); 山东建筑大学博士基金(XNBS1803); 资源与环境信息系统国家重点实验室开放基金
COMPARATIVE STUDY ON RURAL SETTLEMENT OF DIFFERENT RURAL DEVELOPMENT TYPE IN NORTH CHINA PLAIN
Dong Guanglong1,2, Xu Erqi3, Zhang Hongqi3※
1.Shandong Jianzhu University, School of Management Engineering, Jinan, Shandong 250101, China;2. State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Beijing 100049, China; 3. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Abstract:
The comparative analysis of the spatial distribution and spatiotemporal evolution pattern of different rural settlement development type can provide reference for the realize of rural revitalization. The differences of rural settlement number, area, density, shape of different rural development type had been investigated based on the rural settlement data of 1990 and 2015 and socioeconomic data. The results showed that (1) Rural settlement of different rural development type showed obvious diversity in quantity, average patch area, density, and area ratio. Rural settlement of farming industry dominated rural development type had larger quantity, higher density, smaller average patch area, and larger total area; Rural settlement of industry dominated rural development type had a smaller quantity, lower density, larger average patch area, irregular shape; Rural settlement of the tertiary industry dominated rural development type had the smallest average patch area and the lowest area ratio. (2) The differences among the evolution of rural settlement of different rural development type mainly displayed in the aspect of quantity and total area. During 1990-2015, both the quantity and the total area of rural settlement of farming industry dominated rural development type increase obviously. As to rural settlement of industry dominated rural development type, the increment in the number of rural settlement was less, while the increased total area was considerable. The change of rural settlement of the tertiary industry dominated rural development type was least, and the number and average patch area even showed a decreasing tendency. The main character of the evolution of rural settlement of the balanced rural development type is the increment in quantity. The management of rural settlement should be classified and intensify institutional innovation to realize rural revitalization.
Key words:  rural settlement  rural development type  evolution  rural revitalization  North China Plain
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