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引用本文:陈中督,李凤博,冯金飞,周锡跃,徐春春,纪龙,方福平.长江下游地区稻麦轮作模式碳足迹研究*——基于生命周期评价[J].中国农业资源与区划,2019,40(12):81~90
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长江下游地区稻麦轮作模式碳足迹研究*——基于生命周期评价
陈中督, 李凤博, 冯金飞, 周锡跃, 徐春春, 纪龙, 方福平
中国水稻研究所,浙江杭州311300
摘要:
[目的]稻麦轮作是我国长江下游粮食主产区一种主要的种植制度,系统分析稻麦轮作系统碳足迹构成对于实现该地区低碳农业具有重要的意义。[方法]文章基于农户调研数据,运用农业碳足迹理论及生命周期法定量研究长江下游地区稻麦轮作系统碳足迹大小及组成,并进一步分析碳足迹影响因素。[结果](1)长江下游地区稻麦轮作系统单位产量、单位生物量、单位产值碳足迹分别为050kgCO2-eq/kg、022kgCO2-eq/kg 和022kgCO2-eq/CNY。CH4和N2O排放、柴油、肥料为长江下游地区稻麦轮作系统碳排放主要来源,分别占稻麦生产碳足迹的65%、53%、11%~22%和15%~20%。(2)在调研的稻麦田中发现农资投入中氮肥的施用量和柴油消耗量都与碳足迹呈现显著正相关关系,而种植规模与碳足迹呈现显著负相关关系,与小规模稻麦种植相比,大规模稻麦种植单位产量碳足迹分别降低了74%和209%。(3)作物生产的碳足迹可能受到农场规模、气候条件以及作物管理实践的影响。[结论]发展稻麦轮作系统节肥、节水及免耕技术,构建规模化的低碳种植模式必将成为未来中国长江下游地区稻麦轮作模式应对气候变化发展低碳农业的重要举措。
关键词:  碳足迹稻麦轮作全球变暖生命周期
DOI:
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基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目“粮食丰产增效科技创新”(2016YFD0300210)和浙江省自然科学基金青年基金项目(LQ18G030013)项目资助
STUDY ON CARBON FOOTPRINT FOR RICE WHEAT ROTATION SYSTEM IN THE LOWER REACHES OF YANGTZE RIVER*——BASED ON THE LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT
Chen Zhongdu, Li Fengbo, Feng Jinfei, Zhou Xiyue, Xu Chunchun, Ji Long, Fang Fuping
China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 311300, China
Abstract:
Rice wheat rotation system is a major cropping system in the lower reaches of Yangtze River in China, and it is of great significance to analyze the carbon footprint of rice wheat cropping pattern for developing low carbon agriculture in this region. Based on farmer′s production survey data from Yangtze River, the carbon footprint of rice wheat cropping pattern in the lower reaches of Yangtze River was estimated using a life cycle assessment method in the agricultural sector. The proportion of different agricultural inputs in the carbon footprint of rice wheat cropping pattern production was explored. In addition, the influence factors of carbon footprint were analyzed. The results showed the carbon footprint per unit yield, carbon footprint per unit biomass and carbon footprint per unit production value for rice wheat cropping pattern in the lower reaches of Yangtze River were 0.50 kgCO2-eq/kg, 0.22kgCO2-eq/kg and 0.22 kgCO2-eq/CNY, respectively. The main components of the carbon footprint were CH4 (65%), N2O (53%), Diesel consumption (11~22%) and fertilizer (15~20%) for the rice wheat cropping pattern. Moreover, the amount of nitrogenous fertilizer and diesel consumption was positively correlated with the carbon footprint and the scale of planting was negatively correlated with the carbon footprint, and a decrease in the product carbon footprint both of rice and wheat was found in large sized farms by 7.4% and 20.9% compared to smaller ones, respectively. This study demonstrated that carbon footprint of crop production could be affected by farm size and climate condition as well as crop management practices. Improving crop management practices that limit water and fertilizer consumption, as well as developing conservation tillage technology and large scaled farms could help to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from rice wheat rotation system of the lower reaches of Yangtze River of China.
Key words:  carbon footprint  rice wheat rotation cropping  global warming  life cycle assessment  the lower reaches of Yangtze River
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