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引用本文:冯畅,毛德华,杨柳,周慧,胡光伟.绿水资源研究进展及评述[J].中国农业资源与区划,2020,41(1):173~184
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绿水资源研究进展及评述
冯畅1, 2,毛德华2※,杨柳1,周慧3,胡光伟4
1.衡阳师范学院城市与旅游学院,湖南衡阳421002; 2.湖南师范大学资源与环境科学学院,长沙410081; 3.湖南省水文水资源勘测局,长沙410007; 4.湖南工业大学城市与环境学院,株洲412007
摘要:
[目的]基于蓝水绿水概念,综述总结国内外绿水资源的研究进展和发展趋势,以期为国内绿水模拟和绿水管理研究提供相关参考依据。[方法]通过文献分析法和比较归纳法,阐述了绿水资源在水资源评估规划中的重要作用和开发利用潜力,评价了国内外绿水模拟的研究方法、研究进展与局限性因素,分析了气候变化和人类活动对绿水资源的影响,探讨了流域绿水管理的基本理念与应用发展。[结果](1)绿水资源表示水循环通过降水渗透入土壤非饱和层并由植物蒸腾或土壤蒸发返回大气层的水汽,是农业作物生产的重要基础,但是通常被传统流域水资源管理所忽视。(2)绿水模拟分析结果表明,全球尺度的陆地水资源总量中绿水资源平均占65%,全球尺度农业用地(作物生产期)的绿水资源比例平均占82%,因此绿水的开发利用潜力相对较大,忽视绿水资源量可能会低估水资源可用性。(3)绿水参数率定、遥感ET数据校准、时空尺度转换和不确定性分析等关键问题是提升绿水模拟精度的重点研究方向。(4)基于气候变化和人类活动影响下,水资源稳定性相对减弱的可能趋势,将绿水纳入流域水资源管理体系,有利于客观评估水资源量,能够为应对解决水缺乏、水波动与水冲突等水资源问题拓宽思路。(5)绿水管理是合理优化配置流域蓝水绿水资源,协调平衡流域整体社会经济与生态环境效益,且兼顾上下游公平效率的新型流域水资源开发管理模式。[结论]应对水资源问题的两个基本方向即“开源节流”,绿水资源作为开源的重要方向,绿水管理作为节流的基本措施,理应受到重点关注。绿水概念和绿水管理是在水量平衡基础上,实现流域水资源合理优化配置及高效利用的可行途径。
关键词:  水资源蓝水绿水绿水模拟绿水管理
DOI:
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基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目“湘江流域典型区水系对城镇化适应性及其洪涝调蓄功能响应研究”(41901026); 湖南省社会科学成果评审委员会课题“基于博弈论的湘江流域绿水生态补偿机制研究”(XSP19YBC052); 湖南省重点研发计划项目“湘江水生态保护与修复关键技术研究”(2017SK2301); 衡阳市科技计划项目“湘江中游城市扩张与河流水系的耦合关系及其影响研究”(2018KJ134); 衡阳市社会科学基金项目“湘江流域绿水生态补偿的应用研究”(2018D048); 衡阳师范学院科学基金启动项目“洞庭湖流域蓝水绿水资源研究”(18D05);湖南省人居环境学研究基地开放基金项目“高度城市化下河网水系变化及响应研究”(RJ16K01)
RESEARCH PROGRESS AND COMMENTARY OF GREEN WATER RESOURCES
Feng Chang1,2, Mao Dehua2※, Yang Liu1, Zhou Hui3, Hu Guangwei4
1. College of City and Tourism, Hengyang Normal University, Hengyang, Hunan 421002, China; 2. College of Resources and Environment Science, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081, China; 3. Hydrology and Water Resources Survey Bureau of Hunan Province, Changsha, Hunan 410007, China; 4. College of Urban and Environment Science, Hunan University of Technology, Zhuzhou, Hunan 412007, China
Abstract:
Based on the blue and green water concept, this paper summarizes the research progress and development trend of green water resources in China and all over the world, which expects to provide relevant references for the future study on the green water simulation and green water management. Through literature analysis and comparative induction, we expounded the important role of green water resources and its exploitative potential in the water resources management, and reviewed the research methods, research progress and limitations of green water simulation. Furthermore, we analyzed the impacts of the climate change and human activity on green water resources, and the basic concept and application development of green water management in the river basin. The results show that (1) Green water resources indicate that the precipitation infiltrate into the soil unsaturated layer and return to atmosphere by the plant transpiration and soil evaporation through hydrologic cycle, which is an important basis for the production of agricultural crops, however, it is usually ignored by traditional water resources management in the river basin. (2) At the global scale, green water resources account for an average of 65% of the total terrestrial water resources, and for an average of 82% in agricultural land (cropping period). Therefore, the development and exploitative potential of green water resources is relatively large, and if we neglect the amount of green water, we may underestimate water availability. (3) The green water parameters calibration, remote sensing ET data calibration, spatio temporal scale transformation and uncertainty analysis are key research issues for improving the accuracy of green water simulation. (4) Based on the potential trend of future water resources stability will be weakened for the climate change and human activities, it is practical significance to take green water into consideration in the basin water resources management. Because it can accurately evaluate water resources, and build a new avenue to cope with future water resources problems in the river basin such as water scarcity, water fluctuation and water stress, etc. (5) Green water management is a new project of water resources management in the river basin which can rationally optimize the allocation of blue and green water resources, and can coordinate the overall balance of the socio economic and ecological benefits based on the fairness and efficiency between upstream and downstream. Consequently, two aspects for dealing with water resources issues are no other than "broaden water resource and save water resources". Green water resources as an important component of broaden water resource and green water management as a basic measure for save water resources should be supposed to pay more attention. On the basis of water balance, the concept of green water management is feasible way for the equitable allocation and efficient utilization of water resources in the river basin.
Key words:  water resources  blue water  green water  green water simulation  green water management
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