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引用本文:储霞玲,黄修杰,姚飞,马力,洪建军.农业专业化的时空演化规律及空间集聚效应探析*——以广东省种植业为例[J].中国农业资源与区划,2020,41(1):194~203
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农业专业化的时空演化规律及空间集聚效应探析*——以广东省种植业为例
储霞玲1, 2,黄修杰1, 2※,姚飞1, 2,马力1, 2,洪建军1, 2
1.广东省农业科学院农业经济与农村发展研究所,广州510640; 2.农业农村部华南都市农业重点实验室,广州510640
摘要:
[目的]利用种植业产量数据,在县域层面上分析1997—2016年广东省农业专业化的时空演化规律及空间集聚效应。[方法]在通过区位熵模型计算农业专业化指数的基础上,引入重心模型和GIS空间可视化技术分析广东省农业专业化程度的时空分异特征,最后利用空间自相关探究广东省农业专业化的时空集聚效应。[结果](1)1997—2016年广东省农业专业化程度逐渐提升,尤以2007—2016年提升速度最快,这种变化趋势得益于广东省专业镇相关政策实施效果的显现。 (2)粮食生产专业化程度相对较高,目前已在粤北(河源市和梅州市西部)、粤西(阳江市)和珠三角(江门市)形成专业化生产区域。蔬菜专业化集聚优势区基本未发生变化,主要分布在广州市和东莞市等城市化水平较高区域。瓜果专业化程度相对较低,空间集聚效应不明显,种植区域分散和相对集中并存,专业化集聚优势区从粤北地区转移到珠三角及偏北区域(肇封开县、德庆县、郁南县)。桑茶专业化区域重心从广东省东北部转移到西南部,目前在粤北的云浮、粤西的茂名形成了明显的专业化分工区域,但规模较小。 (3)广东省已初步形成各具特色的农业专业化格局。粮食专业化产区的空间布局主要受经济因素影响,劳动力成本和运输成本决定了蔬菜专业化产区的分布呈现杜能模型的圈层结构,瓜果和桑茶专业化产区主要受自然因素影响,其空间布局具有一定的继承性。[结论]应从优化调整农业专业化空间布局、突破和推广现代农业技术、完善政策保障机制等方面着手,进一步提高广东省农业的专业化和规模化效益。
关键词:  农业专业化时空演化空间集聚广东省种植业
DOI:
分类号:F327
基金项目:广东省科技计划项目“基于农业专业镇的生产力促进服务体系建设”(2017A040403062); 广东省科技计划项目“广东省农业专业镇中小微企业服务平台创新发展研究”(2013B091605005)
TEMPO SPATIAL EVOLUTION OF AGRICULTURAL SPECIALIZATION AND ITS AGGLOMERATION EFFECT*——A CASE STUDY OF CROPPING INDUSTRY IN GUANGDONG PROVINCE, CHINA
Chu Xialing1,2, Huang Xiujie1,2※, Yao Fei1,2, Ma Li1,2, Hong Jianjun1,2
1. Institute of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640, China; 2. Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture in South China, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640, China
Abstract:
Agricultural specialization represents the mainstream direction of modern agricultural development. In this paper, an index approach on the basis of location entropy model integrated with gravity center model and GIS visualization was used to examine the tempo spatial characteristics of agricultural specialization in cropping production during 1997-2016 in Guangdong province, China. The spatial autocorrelation model was also used to explore the spatial and temporal agglomeration effect of agricultural specialization in the province. The results showed that (1) The agricultural specialization degree during 1997-2016, especially during 2007-2016, increased gradually. This trend benefited from the support policies implementation about specialization town in Guangdong province. (2)The specialization degree of grain production was relatively high, and the specialized production areas were formed in northern Guangdong (Heyuan and Western Meizhou), western Guangdong (Yangjiang) and the Pearl River Delta (Jiangmen). There was no change in the dominant areas of vegetable specialization, which were mainly distributed in Guangzhou and Dongguan, with high level of urbanization. For melon and fruit production, the specialization degree was relatively low, the spatial agglomeration effect was not obvious, the planting area was scattered or relatively concentrated, and the specialized agglomeration advantage area was transferred from North Guangdong to the Pearl River Delta and the northern region (Fengkai county, Deqin county and Yu′nan county). For mulberry and tea production, the center of specialized area was transferred from the northeast to the southwest of Guangdong, there was an obvious specialization division in Maoming city and Yunfu city, but the scale was small.(3) Distinctive agricultural specialization pattern had been preliminarily formed in Guangdong province. The spatial layout of grain specialized production area was mainly influenced by economic factors; vegetable production area showed the structure of Thunen circle, which was determined by labor cost and transportation cost; the production of melon, mulberry and tea was mainly affected by natural factors, and their spatial layout had certain inheritance. Finally, some suggestions were put forward, such as optimizing and adjusting the spatial layout of agricultural specialization, breaking through and popularizing modern agricultural technologies, and improving the policy guarantee mechanism, to improve the specialization and scale efficiency of agriculture in Guangdong province.
Key words:  agricultural specialization  spatiotemporal evolution  spatial agglomeration  Guangdong province  cropping
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