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引用本文:杨婧,赵微,曾晨.农地整治区农户生计脆弱性指数评估研究*——基于湖北荆门和宜昌的实证研究[J].中国农业资源与区划,2020,41(2):275~283
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农地整治区农户生计脆弱性指数评估研究*——基于湖北荆门和宜昌的实证研究
杨婧, 赵微, 曾晨
华中农业大学公共管理学院,湖北武汉430070
摘要:
[目的]农地整治能通过多种有效途径改善农户的生计资本。以农地整治的角度切入来研究农户生计脆弱性的变化规律,探究农地整治对农户生计脆弱性的影响,为探索改善农户生计的可持续性提供理论借鉴。[方法]以农地整治对生计资本的直接改善为出发点,基于可持续生计分析框架,根据IPCC关于脆弱性的解释,建立农地整治区农户生计脆弱性评估框架体系,其主要涵盖农户面临的自然风险、生计资本以及适应策略3方面,通过熵权法确定指标权重。基于湖北省荆门、宜昌两地区的394户农户调查问卷,运用生计脆弱性评估框架计算得到农地整治前后农户生计脆弱性指数,同时,针对荆门、宜昌两地区分别进行评估研究。[结果](1)农地整治前后农户生计脆弱性指数分别为-0223和-0423,在整治之后农户生计脆弱性显著降低。(2)生计脆弱性指数变化的影响因素存在地区性差异。荆门地区整治前后的生计脆弱性指数变化依次受旱地情况、耕地灌溉情况、村庄绿化设施、农田水利设施的变化量等因素的影响; 宜昌地区整治前后生计脆弱性指数变化依次受农田水利设施、村庄道路通达、村庄绿化设施、田间道路、耕地灌溉情况、水田情况、旱地情况的变化量等因素的影响。[结论]为提高农户福利水平,降低其生计脆弱性,建议农地整治的规划与实施要进一步关注农户生计问题,特别重视相关自然资本和物质资本的改善,同时不同实施地区要从贡献因素排序出发,实现提高农户生计脆弱性改善的目的。
关键词:  农地整治生计农户脆弱性荆门宜昌
DOI:
分类号:F328
基金项目:中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金资助项目“农户生计视角下农地整治对农村劳动力产业间转移的影响机理研究”(2662018YJ007); 国家自然科学基金“区域管治的空间外溢效应对城镇土地集约利用的影响机理及优化路径—以长江中游城市群为例”(41771563); 国家自然科学基金“基于竞租理论的大城市郊区农村宅基地经营性功能空间分异机理研究”(41701194)
STUDY ON EVALUATION OF LIVELIHOOD VULNERABILITY INDEX OF RURAL HOUSEHOLDS IN RURAL LAND CONSOLIDATION*——AN EMPIRICAL STUDY BASED ON JINGMEN AND YICHANG IN HUBEI PROVINCE
Yang Jing, Zhao Wei, Zeng Chen
College of Public Administration, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan,Hubei 430070, China
Abstract:
Rural land consolidation can improve the livelihood capital of rural households through various effective ways. We studied the changing rules of livelihood vulnerability of rural households from the perspective of rural land consolidation to explore the impact of rural land consolidation on the livelihood vulnerability of rural households. This study can provide typically theoretical reference for improving the sustainability of the livelihoods of rural households. According to the definition of vulnerability by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), this paper established a livelihood vulnerability evaluation index system for rural households on the basis of a sustainable livelihood analysis framework. The framework covered the three dimensions that were the natural risks faced by rural households, livelihood capital, and adaptation strategies. Especially, the livelihood vulnerability evaluation index system took the direct improvement of livelihood capital of rural households through rural land consolidation as the starting point. The index weight was determined by the entropy weight method. The vulnerability indices of the livelihood of rural households before and after consolidation were calculated by using the livelihood vulnerability assessment framework on the basis of the questionnaires of 394 rural households in Jingmen and Yichang of Hubei Province. At the same time, evaluations were conducted on the two areas of Jingmen and Yichang, respectively. The results showed that the vulnerability index of rural households before rural land consolidation was -0.223, and the vulnerability index of rural households after rural land consolidation was -0.423. The livelihood vulnerability of rural households after rural land consolidation reduced significantly, compared with the vulnerability index before rural land consolidation. And it was found that there are regional differences in the influencing factors of changes in the livelihood vulnerability index. The changes in livelihood vulnerability index before and after rural land consolidation in Jingmen area were affected by factors such as changes in dryland conditions, changes in cultivated land irrigation, changes in village greening facilities, and changes in farmland water conservancy facilities. The changes in livelihood vulnerability index before and after rural land consolidation in Yichang area were affected by factors such as changes in farmland water conservancy facilities, changes in village road access, changes in village greening facilities, changes in field roads, changes in cultivated land irrigation conditions, changes in paddy field conditions, and changes in dryland conditions. In order to improve the welfare level of rural households and reduce their livelihood vulnerability, it is suggested that the planning and implementation of rural land consolidation should pay more attention to the livelihood of rural households, especially in the improvement of relevant natural capital and physical capital. Meanwhile, different regions should improve the efficiency of reducing the livelihood vulnerability of the rural households from the ranking of contributing factors.
Key words:  rural land consolidation  livelihood  farm household  vulnerability  Jingmen: Yichang
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