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引用本文:任宁,王改革,叶优良,汪洋,赵亚南,黄玉芳.河南省不同典型农业生产区玉米施肥现状及增产潜力评价[J].中国农业资源与区划,2020,41(5):98~105
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河南省不同典型农业生产区玉米施肥现状及增产潜力评价
任宁, 王改革, 叶优良, 汪洋, 赵亚南, 黄玉芳
河南农业大学资源与环境学院,郑州450002
摘要:
[目的]通过调研2017年河南省不同典型农业生产区玉米的施肥现状,发现河南省玉米种植效益普遍较低主要与化肥不合理施用相关,提出相应的施肥建议以获得最大增产。[方法]采用实地问卷调查的方法,选择河南省禹州、长葛(两个粮食作物种植区)、杞县(一个经济作物种植区)3个典型农业经济区域作为调查地点,共调查了828家农户玉米的产量、施肥种类、施肥量、施肥时间、施肥方式等。[结果]河南省粮作区玉米产量为4 50000~10 50000kg/hm2,养分投入量为9000~1 24900kg/hm2,且仅有单质肥料和复合肥的投入,禹州、长葛两地粮作区平均PFP分别为1918%和2246%,、增产潜力分别为23%和26%; 杞县经作区玉米产量在4 73100~11 32000kg/hm2,养分投入量为000~1 20600kg/hm2。经作区有机肥的投入,使其肥料种类相对较多,该区域平均PFP为3119%,平均增产潜力为34%。[结论]根据当地土壤肥力,粮作区玉米种植可适当减少氮肥投入量,降低基追比,增施磷钾肥,改进后玉米有20%~30%的增产潜力; 经作区玉米种植严格把控氮磷钾的配施,增施有机肥,增加基肥种类,改进后玉米有30%~40%的增产潜力。
关键词:  玉米施肥问卷调查增产潜力施肥建议
DOI:
分类号:S1431
基金项目:十三五国家重点研发计划“作物氮素需求与土壤、肥料供氮时空匹配规律”(2017YFD0200100)
EVALUATION OF FERTILIZATION MANAGEMENT AND YIELD POTENTIAL OF MAIZE IN DIFFERENT TYPICAL AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AREAS IN HENAN PROVINCE*
Ren Ning, Wang Gaige, Ye Youliang, Wang Yang, Zhao Yanan, Huang Yufang
College of Resources and Environment, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450002, China
Abstract:
Based on a survey of fertilization management in maize production in Henan province in 2017, it is found that the low efficiency of maize is mainly related to suboptimal of chemical fertilizers, suggestions on fertilization managements are made to maximize the yield and efficiency. In this study, we investigated the maize yield and the "4R" of fertilization management (i.e., types, rate, time, and place) of 828 farmers in Yuzhou, Change (as two grain growing areas) and Qixian (as a cash crop growing area) of Henan province. The maize yield of the two grain growing areas ranged from 4 500.00 kg/hm2 to 10 500.00 kg/hm2, and fertilizer input varied from 90.00 kg/hm2 to 1 249.00 kg/hm2. The input of straight fertilizer and compound fertilizer prevailed in these two grain growing areas. The average PFP of the two areas were 19.18%, 22.46%, and yield potential were 23% and 26%, respectively. In the cash crop growing area, maize yield ranged from 4 731.00 kg/hm2 to 11 320.00 kg/hm2, and fertilizer input varied from 0.00 kg/hm2 to 1 206.00 kg/hm2. Organic fertilizers were used in the cultivated area, resulting in a relatively large variety of fertilizers. The average PFP in this area was 31.19% and yield increase potential was 34%. For the two grain growing areas, our recommendations are showed as follows. Firstly, it should reduce total N fertilizer, reduce basal/topdressing ratio, and increase phosphorus and potassium fertilizers. Combing these measures, it may increase maize yield by 20%~30% depending on soil fertility. For cash growing area, the application of ammonia, phosphorus and potassium should be strictly controlled according to soil fertility and crop demand. And it increase the application of organic fertilizer and the types of basal fertilizer may increase maize yield by 30%~40%.
Key words:  maize  fertilization  questionnaire survey  potential to increase production  fertilizer recommendations
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