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引用本文:李玉义,逄焕成,张志忠,刘双平,张琛平,魏由庆.内蒙古河套平原盐碱化土壤改良分区特点与对策[J].中国农业资源与区划,2020,41(5):115~121
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内蒙古河套平原盐碱化土壤改良分区特点与对策
李玉义1※逄焕成1张志忠2刘双平2张琛平2魏由庆1
1.中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所,北京100081; 2.内蒙古巴彦淖尔市农牧业技术推广中心,巴彦淖尔015000
摘要:
[目的]综合区划是进行盐碱地分类改良与利用的基础,对改善生态环境、合理利用土壤资源和支撑农业经济发展具有重要作用。[方法]基于河套平原地貌类型(山地、冲洪积平原、沙漠等),考虑盐碱土形成特点、灌区水利现状及改良方向等,并参考区域内72万hm2耕地(共采集5 399个土壤样品)土壤背景值,根据科学性、适用性、可推广性、可操作性等相关原则进行了河套平原盐碱化土壤综合改良分区和相应改良对策制定。[结果]将河套平原盐碱化土壤改良划分为6个一级区和13个亚区。一级区包括河套倾斜平原灌淤土土壤盐碱化改良区、黄河—引黄总干(二黄河)两河间平地盐碱化土壤改良区、乌加河排水总干沟北侧黄灌盐碱化土壤改良区、河套平原北部狼山南侧洪积冲积平原盐碱化土壤改良区、乌拉山—黄河之间三湖河盐碱化土壤改良区、乌兰布和沙漠东边缘绿洲盐碱化土壤改良区。[结论]将河套平原盐碱地改良治理与利用有机结合,科学划定了分区,并在综合考虑区域水盐平衡基础上,明确了各亚区黄河水和井水配合利用、地下水位调控、改良措施组合的综合改良对策和利用方向,为河套平原盐碱化土壤分区改良提供了依据。
关键词:  河套平原盐碱地改良分区特点利用方向对策
DOI:
分类号:S156
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目“河套平原盐碱地微生物治理与修复关键技术”(2016YFC0501302); 国家自然科学基金“河套灌区盐碱地秸秆隔层对深层土壤有机碳矿化过程及影响机制的研究”(31871584)
CHARACTERISTICS AND COUNTERMEASURES OF IMPROVEMENT ZONING OF SALINE ALKALI SOIL IN HETAO PLAIN OF INNER MONGOLIA
Li Yuyi1※, Pang Huancheng1, Zhang Zhizhong2, Liu Shuangping2, Zhang Chenping2, Wei Youqing1
1. Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China;2. Inner Mongolia Bayannaoer Agricultural and Animal Husbandry Technology Promotion Center, Bayannaoer, Inner Mongolia 015000, China
Abstract:
Comprehensive regionalization is the basis for classification improvement and utilization of saline alkali land, and plays an important role in improving the ecological environment, rationally utilization of soil resources and supporting the development of agricultural economy. Hetao Plain in Inner Mongolia is one of the largest self flow irrigation areas in China, and it is within a semi enclosed depression with gentle terrain, poor groundwater runoff, slow horizontal movement, low natural drainage capacity, as well as a large number of man made Yellow River diversion, flooding irrigation, blockage of drainage system, and continuous upward movement and accumulation of salt in soil and groundwater in the vertical cycle. Based on the geomorphological types (mountains, alluvial plains, deserts, etc), the formation characteristics of saline alkali soil, irrigation status and improvement direction were considered, and the background value of 72 000 hm2 cultivated land including 5 399 soil samples in the region were also taken into account. And then the comprehensive improvement zoning and corresponding countermeasures of saline alkali soil were formulated according to the relevant principles of scientificity, applicability, generalization and operability. The results showed that Hetao plain could be divided into 6 first class zones and 13 second class zones by means of the natural condition, saline alkali types, limiting factors and utilization directions of saline alkali land. The first class zones of saline alkali amelioration included the area of anthropogenic alluvial soil in Hetao inclined plain, the area between Yellow River and the main river of the Yellow River diversion (the second Yellow River), the area of Yellow River irrigation in the north of the drainage main gully of Wujia river, the area in the alluvial plain on the south side of Langshan mountain in the north of Hetao plain, the area in Sanhuhe plain between Wulashan mountain and Yellow River, and the area in Oasis of the eastern margin of Ulanbuhe desert. Overall, organically combining the improvement and utilization of saline alkali land in Hetao plain, the division is scientifically delineated. Based on the water salt balance in the region, the comprehensive improvement countermeasures and utilization direction of the combination of the Yellow River water and well water, groundwater level regulation and improvement measures optimization in each second class zone are defined. The result can provide scientific guidance for the zoning improvement of saline alkali soil in Hetao plain.
Key words:  Hetao plain  saline alkali soil  regionalization characteristics  utilization direction  countermeasures
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