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引用本文:胡艳霞,郑瑞伦,杨志臣,候新村.产业融合对北京密云浅山区的生态脆弱性影响[J].中国农业资源与区划,2020,41(5):146~153
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产业融合对北京密云浅山区的生态脆弱性影响
胡艳霞, 郑瑞伦, 杨志臣, 候新村
北京市农林科学院草业与环境研究发展中心,北京100097
摘要:
[目的]北京浅山区(海拔100~500m)是自然与人文相互作用、相互影响最强烈的区域,文章以北京密云浅山区为例,探讨浅山区农业产业融合对周边环境的生态脆弱度影响。[方法]实地调研了区域内典型融合型农业产业及其类型,选择海拔高度、坡度、土壤耕层厚度、土壤养分、植被覆盖度等指标建立指标体系,进行了前后相隔30年两个时间点生态脆弱度指数的核算和分析,得出密云浅山区生态脆弱度的变化特点。[结果]相对于1980年, 30年后密云浅山区生态脆弱度整体降低,得益于北京市近年来出台的一系列生态环境保护政策和密云水库水源地生态涵养政策; 密云浅山区融合型产业主要包括综合型农业科技园、农业观光园、果蔬采摘园、民俗旅游村四大类型,各占有30%、17%、17%和11%的比重。综合型农业科技园、面积较大的规模果园、设施蔬菜园、观光花园年产值收益较高,加工产品、果品采摘收入、餐饮收入、门票收入是融合型农业收入的主要部分; 4种融合型产业生态脆弱度多处于中度脆弱以上,农业科技园的生态脆弱度为Ⅲ级,生态环境负效应明显,农业观光园生态脆弱度为Ⅱ~Ⅳ级; 果蔬采摘园生态脆弱度多为Ⅰ~Ⅱ级,该类园区在一定程度上起到了生态涵养的作用。民俗旅游村生态脆弱度多数为中等脆弱。[结论]对生态环境具有正效应的融合型农业类型为:经营模式为荒山开发、粗放管理的观光采摘果园,这些产业的人为活动对生态环境的影响较弱。对生态环境具有负效应的融合型农业类型为:精细化管理、高投入高产值、年均游客量大的规模化农业融合产业。这些产业改变了原始植被和土壤结构并建有配套的餐饮住宿设施,生态环境有恶化的趋势。
关键词:  浅山区北京密云产业融合生态脆弱性空间分布
DOI:
分类号:F30124
基金项目:北京市自然基金课题“北京浅山地带产业融合的生态学效应研究”(8132028); 北京市农林科学院科技创新能力建设专项“生物质资源学科建设”(CKJCX20170207); 北京市农林科学院科技创新能力建设专项“京津冀农业生态景观提升关键技术研究与示范”(KJCX20180707)
THE EFFECT OF AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRY AMALGAMATION ON ECOLOGICAL VULNERABILITY IN MIYUN SHALLOW MOUNTAIN AREAS OF BEIJING*
Hu Yanxia, Zheng Ruilun, Yang Zhichen, Hou Xincun
Research & Development Center for Grass and Environment, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Beijing 100097, China
Abstract:
The shallow mountain areas of Beijing (100~500m above sea level) are characterized by strong interaction between land and human beings. This paper took the shallow mountain areas of Miyun county in Beijing as an example to explore the impact of agricultural industry amalgamation on the ecological vulnerability of the shallow mountainous areas. The typical integration of agriculture and industry and its types were conducted by field investigation. The index system was established by including altitude, slope, thickness of soil tilling layer, soil nutrient, vegetation coverage, etc. The ecological vulnerability indexes were calculated and analyzed for two time periods with an interval of 30 years, and the change characteristics of ecological vulnerability in Miyun shallow mountain areas were obtained. The ecological fragility of Miyun shallow mountainous areas was shown to had reduced, which benefited from a series of ecological protection policies of the Miyun reservoir. Four main types of integrated agricultural industry had been identified, including science & technology park, agricultural sightseeing garden, fruit and vegetable picking garden and tourism villages, with a proportion of 30%, 17%, 17%, and 11%, respectively. The comprehensive agricultural science & technology park, large scale orchards, facilities vegetable garden and sightseeing garden had higher annual outputs and incomes, and product processing, fruit picking, catering and the ticket incomes were the main part of the integration agriculture incomes. The four kinds of integrated industries were all above moderate fragility grade, the agricultural science & technology park was in fragility grade III, and its negative effect of ecological environment was obvious. Agricultural tourism garden was in fragility grade II IV; fruit and vegetable picking garden was in fragility grade I II, which played the role of ecological conservation to some extent. The tourism villages were mostly medium fragile. Such integrated agriculture as sightseeing and picking orchards based on barren mountain utilization, has positive effect on ecological environment; while integrated agriculture, such as fine management, high input and high output, large scale agricultural integration industry, could change the original vegetation and soil structure and set up a complete set of catering and accommodation facilities, and as a result, deteriorate the land, or exert negative effect on the local ecological environment.
Key words:  shallow mountain area  Miyun county  industrial convergence  ecological vulnerability  spatial distribution
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