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引用本文:田宜水.我国农作物秸秆综合利用产业促进政策研究[J].中国农业资源与区划,2020,41(9):28~36
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我国农作物秸秆综合利用产业促进政策研究
田宜水
作者单位
田宜水 农业农村部规划设计研究院农村能源与环保研究所,北京100125 
摘要:
[目的]深入地分析了我国秸秆综合利用产业现行促进政策,阐述了存在的主要问题,并提出针对性解决方法,以期为促进秸秆综合利用政策体系建设提供政策建议。[方法]按照法律法规、目标引导和考核、财税补贴、技术研发和推广、信息统计等进行分类,综合评述各类现行政策的特点、使用范围和有效性,并采用相关者利益分析等方法分析存在问题,提出政策建议。[结果]随着我国秸秆露天焚烧问题日益突出,国家加大了对秸秆综合利用重视的程度,出台一系列关于秸秆综合利用等方面的法律、法规和激励政策等,初步构建了秸秆综合利用政策体系,呈现出聚焦关键环节、关键技术和重点地区的趋势。但是,还存在着政策的有效性有限,未形成合力; 农民参与度低; 使用环节缺乏激励政策等问题。[结论]建议出台区域生态补偿制度,落实耕地地力保护补贴政策,鼓励终端产品使用和消费等政策。
关键词:  农作物秸秆综合利用法律法规财政补贴政策政策建议
DOI:
分类号:S-01
基金项目:国家现代农业产业技术体系-秸秆处理及利用(原料化)(CARS-03-40)
STUDY ON THE INDUSTRIAL PROMOTION POLICY OF CROP STRAW COMPREHENSIVE UTILIZATION IN CHINA
Tian Yishui
Abstract:
This paper reviews the current industrial promotion policies of straw comprehensive utilization in China and presents the main problems in the policies, so as to provide policy suggestions for promoting the construction of straw comprehensive utilization policy system. This research classified the policies according to laws and regulations, target guidance and assessment, financial and tax subsidies, technology research and development and promotion, information statistics, and comprehensively discussed the characteristics, scope of use and effectiveness of current policies, and analyzed the existing problems with the method of stakeholder interest analysis. Finally, it put forward policy suggestions. The results showed that with the increasingly prominent problem of straw burning in the open air, the Chinese government increased the importance of straw comprehensive utilization, issued a series of laws, regulations and incentive policies on straw comprehensive utilization, and initially established a straw comprehensive utilization policy system, showing the trend of focusing on key links, key technologies and key areas. The comprehensive utilization of straw gradually developed towards institutionalization. But there were still some problems in straw comprehensive utilization policies. The state′s policy for straw comprehensive utilization industry was mainly to encourage and admonish, with low effectiveness and manageability. The stakeholders of straw comprehensive utilization involve farmers, enterprises, government and the public. However, the current incentive policies of straw comprehensive utilization mostly took straw comprehensive utilization enterprises as subsidy objects, which lack effective support for farmers. In the end products, the government lacked incentive policies. In summary, the comprehensive utilization rate of straw, the number of open air burning points of straw and the content of soil organic matter in cultivated land should be taken into consideration, and the existing fund and stock policy should be integrated to carry out the construction of regional compensation system. In addition, the policy of farmland protection subsidy should be implemented, and the straw returning or leaving the farmland with part of the fund of farmland subsidy should be linked. For the farmers who violate the regulations and burn straw, any subsidy or biochar part of the subsidy will not be given. Finally, it is suggested to implement the end product subsidy system for the organic fertilizer, biochar, biogas, shaped fuel, electric power, heating and other products of straw production, so as to effectively reduce the sales price.
Key words:  crop straw  comprehensive utilization  laws and regulations  financial subsidy policy  policy suggestion
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