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引用本文:辛岭,陈洁,安晓宁.我国渔业现代化发展水平评价研究[J].中国农业资源与区划,2020,41(11):140~149
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我国渔业现代化发展水平评价研究
辛岭1, 陈洁2, 安晓宁1
1.中国农业科学院农业经济与发展研究所,北京100081;2.农业农村部农村经济研究中心,北京100810
摘要:
[目的]通过渔业现代化发展水平评价,认清我国渔业发展的优劣势和存在的问题,对于实现我国渔业现代化乃至农业现代化都具有重要的现实意义。[方法]文章构建渔业现代化发展水平评价指标体系,采用多指标综合指数法建立评价模型,利用变异系数法确定指标权重,选取相关数据,对2016年全国及30个省(区、市)渔业现代化水平进行测算评价。[结果](1)2016年全国的渔业现代化得分为5928分,处于渔业现代化的跨越阶段。福建和浙江渔业现代化发展水平已经进入基本实现阶段,江苏等24个地区处于跨越阶段,青海等4个地区处于发展阶段。(2)2016年全国的渔业现代化总体实现度为6460%,经营体系实现度9504%,生产体系和可持续发展实现度较低。福建和浙江实现度达到80%以上; 江苏等15个地区实现度在60%~80%; 河北等12个地区在50%~60%; 实现度在50%以下的只有甘肃省。(3)2016年我国渔业现代化水平制约因子主要为可持续发展水平,其次为生产体系和产业体系发展水平,而经营体系和支持保护的约束度相对较低。种质资源保护区发展水平约束度最高,劳均饲料业产值、经费支持力度、渔业机械化程度和劳均固定资产投入成为重要制约因素。[结论]2016年我国渔业现代化发展水平处于跨越阶段,但实现度不高,距基本实现阶段差距还较远。我国现代渔业产业体系初步建立,生产体系和经营体系发展较快。但渔业可持续发展水平不高,渔业支持保护有待加强。各地渔业现代化的综合发展程度和实现度差异较大。在此基础上,提出推进渔业现代化的对策措施。
关键词:  渔业现代化多指标综合指数法变异系数法现代化水平评价
DOI:
分类号:F3201
基金项目:国家大宗淡水鱼产业技术体系(CARS-46-30);中国农业科学院科技创新工程(ASTIP-IAED-2020-02);中央级科研院所基本科研业务费专项(161005202002-4)
RESEARCH ON THE EVALUATION OF THE DEVELOPMENT LEVEL OF FISHERY MODERNIZATION IN CHINA
Xin Ling1, Chen Jie2, An Xiaoning1
1.Institute of Agricultural Economics and Development, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China;2.Research Center for Rural Economy, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Beijing 100810, China
Abstract:
This research aims to recognize the advantages, disadvantages and existing problems of fishery development in China through the evaluation of the development level of fishery modernization, which is of great practical significance for the realization of fishery modernization and even agricultural modernization in China. This research constructed the evaluation index system of the development level of national fishery modernization, established the evaluation model by using the multi index comprehensive index method, and determined the index weight by using the coefficient of variation method, then selected the relevant data of fishery development to measure and evaluate the fishery modernization level of the whole country and 30 provinces (autonomous regions and cities) in 2016. The results were listed as follows. (1)The score of fishery modernization in 2016 was 59.28, which was in the leapfrogging stage of fishery modernization. The development level of fishery modernization in Fujian and Zhejiang had entered the basic realization stage, 24 provinces, such as Jiangsu, were in the leapfrogging stage, and 4 provinces, such as Qinghai, and were in the development stage. (2) In 2016, the overall realization degree of fishery modernization in China was 64.60%, the realization degree of management system was 95.04%, and the realization degree of production system and sustainable development was low. Fujian and Zhejiang had achieved more than 80%; 15 provinces, such as Jiangsu, had achieved between 60% and 80%; 12 provinces, such as Hebei, had achieved between 50% and 60%; and only Gansu province had achieved less than 50%. (3) In 2016, the restriction factor of fishery modernization level in China was mainly the level of sustainable development, followed by the development level of production system and industrial system, but the constraint degree of management system and supporting protection was relatively low. The development level of germplasm resources protection area was the highest, and the output value of feed industry, the degree of financial support, the degree of fishery mechanization and the investment of fixed assets per labor had become important restrictive factors. In 2016, the development level of fishery modernization in China was in a leapfrogging stage, but the degree of realization was not high, and it was still far from the basic realization stage. The modern fishery industry system of our country has been initially established, and the production system and management system have developed rapidly. However, the level of sustainable development of fisheries is not high, and fisheries support and protection need to be strengthened. The comprehensive development degree and realization degree of fishery modernization in different provinces are quite different. On this basis, the countermeasures to promote the modernization of fisheries are put forward.
Key words:  fishery modernization  multi index comprehensive index method  coefficient of variation method  modernization level evaluation
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