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引用本文:张晶,孙鹏举,刘学录,王乔乔,鲁学孟.生计资本对黄土丘陵区贫困人口生计活动的影响及评价*——以甘肃省榆中县为例[J].中国农业资源与区划,2020,41(11):243~251
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生计资本对黄土丘陵区贫困人口生计活动的影响及评价*——以甘肃省榆中县为例
张晶1孙鹏举1,2※刘学录1王乔乔3鲁学孟1
1.甘肃农业大学资源与环境学院,兰州730070; 2.甘肃省自然资源规划研究院,兰州730000;3.甘肃农业大学管理学院,兰州730070
摘要:
[目的]通过深入研究黄土丘陵区贫困人口生计资本对生计活动的影响,为解决农村贫困问题,提升农户生计资本存量、实现区域可持续生计发展提供科学依据。[方法]文章以甘肃省榆中县为例,基于对榆中县农户的调查数据,采用熵值法分析了东北部山区、中部川区和西南部山区贫困人口的生计资本状况和生计活动方式,并对其生计活动进行评价。[结果]从农户的生计资本组合来看,榆中县整体自然资本和人力资本相对物质资本、金融资本、社会资本3类资本较为富裕,尤其在西南部山区和东北部山区3类资本缺乏型农户比例较高。中部川区各乡镇人口的总体生计资本状况较好,总指数最高,而西南部山区次之、东北部山区最低,两者生计资本状况总体匮乏。农户的生计活动主要以种植、养殖和外出打工为主,生计活动多样性程度偏低; 中部川区人口的生计活动多样性指数最高,西南部山区次之、东北部山区最低,且整体受教育程度偏低,加之物质资本、金融资本、社会资本缺乏进一步限制了当地农户的生计多样性。[结论](1)针对不同生计资本水平和生计活动多样性程度偏低的贫困地区,需要进一步发挥民族文化产业扶贫优势,开启地域产业扶贫新模式,打造地域无公害特色农业产业品牌,提高农户物质资本边际贡献; (2)发展小额信贷金融服务,改善农户金融资本存量,预防村际农户金融资本二元极化; (3)实施免费教育培训技能学习,打造教育培训脱贫示范村,提高人力资本存量,缓解贫困人口生计压力等提高经济发展水平的扶贫政策措施。
关键词:  生计资本生计活动生计活动多样性熵值法榆中县
DOI:
分类号:F328
基金项目:甘肃省自然基金项目“土地城市化与人口城市协调关系研究”(GSAU-ZL-2015-046)
IMPACT OF LIVELIHOOD CAPITAL ON LIVELIHOOD ACTIVITIES OF POOR PEOPLE IN LOESS HILLY REGION AND ITS EVALUATION*——A CASE STUDY OF YUZHONG COUNTY, GANSU PROVINCE
Zhang Jing1, Sun Pengju1,2※, Liu Xuelu1, Wang Qiaoqiao3, Lu Xuemeng1
1.College of Resources and Environment Sciences, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou 730070, Gansu, China;2. Natural Resources Planning and Research Institute of Gansu Provincial, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu, China;3. College of Management, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou 730070, Gansu, China
Abstract:
Through an in depth study on the impact of livelihood capital on livelihood activities of poor people in loess hilly region, this paper provides a scientific basis for solving the problem of rural poverty and improving farmers′ livelihood capital stock and realizing regional sustainable livelihood development. Taking Yuzhong county of Gansu province as an example, and based on the survey data of farmers in Yuzhong county, this paper used the entropy method to analyze the livelihood capital status and livelihood activities of the poor people in mountainous areas in the northeast, in central chuan area and southwest, and evaluated their livelihood activities. The results were indicated as follows. From the perspective of farmers′ livelihood capital combination, the natural capital and human capital of Yuzhong county were relatively rich compared with material capital, financial capital and social capital, especially in the mountainous areas of southwest China and northeast China. The living capital of the towns and villages in the central Chuan area was better, with the highest total index, followed by the mountainous areas in the southwest and the lowest in the northeast. The main livelihood activities of farmers were planting, breeding and migrant workers. The diversity of livelihood activities was low. The diversity index of livelihood activities of the population in the central chuan region was the highest, followed by the mountainous region in the southwest and the mountainous region in the northeast. Moreover, the overall education level was low. In addition, the lack of material capital, financial capital and social capital further restricted the livelihood diversity of local farmers. For poverty stricken areas with different livelihood capital levels and low diversity of livelihood activities, it should further develop and give full play to the advantages of national cultural industrial in poverty alleviation, open a new model of regional industrial poverty alleviation, build the regional brand of pollution free agricultural industry, and increase the marginal contribution of rural households′ material capita. And it should develop microfinance financial services, improve the financial capital stock of rural households, so as to prevent the polarization of rural households′ financial capital between villages. Finally, it should implement free education and training skills learning, build education and training poverty alleviation demonstration villages, increase the stock of human capital, alleviate the livelihood pressure of poor people and other poverty alleviation policies and measures to improve the level of economic development.
Key words:  livelihood capital  living activities  diversity of livelihood activities  Entropy Value method  Yuzhong county
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