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引用本文:刘浩,彭华,王川,祝文琪,董晓霞.我国不同奶业产区奶牛养殖效率的比较分析*——基于266个养殖场的调研数据[J].中国农业资源与区划,2020,41(12):110~119
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我国不同奶业产区奶牛养殖效率的比较分析*——基于266个养殖场的调研数据
刘浩, 彭华, 王川, 祝文琪, 董晓霞
中国农业科学院农业信息研究所,北京100081
摘要:
[目的]奶牛养殖是奶业振兴的基础,近年来受到环境和资源要素的双重制约,提高奶牛养殖效率,准确把握影响养殖效率的关键因素对于破解环境和资源约束、提高奶牛养殖产出、保证奶业健康稳定发展具有重要现实意义。[方法]文章利用2019年全国五大奶业产区266个以规模牧场为主的调研数据,通过数据包络分析法对不同产区的奶牛养殖效率进行测算,探究影响规模牧场奶牛养殖效率的关键因素。[结果](1)我国规模牧场奶牛养殖的规模效率、配置效率较高,技术效率、成本效率的整体水平较低,仍有较大提升空间; 不同产区养殖效率差异明显,大城市周边产区和南方产区的技术效率、成本效率明显低于其他产区,东北内蒙古产区、华北产区、西北产区的养殖效率整体较高; (2)对规模牧场来说,饲料粗精比、技术投入对奶牛养殖的技术效率和规模效率具有显著正影响,用工成本、固定资产折旧对规模牧场整体养殖效率具有负影响,养殖规模扩大对奶牛养殖具有增益递减效果。[结论]政府应鼓励社会组织开展奶牛养殖社会化服务,各产区规模牧场应根据区域特点,发展适度规模养殖,合理配置养殖设施设备,从而提升养殖效率,推动奶牛养殖现代化发展。
关键词:  奶业产区数据包络分析规模牧场养殖效率
DOI:
分类号:F3073
基金项目:农业农村部“农产品质量安全监管专项经费——生鲜乳质量安全监管”(125D0301)
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF DAIRY FARMING EFFICIENCY IN DIFFERENT DAIRY PRODUCTION AREAS IN CHINA*——BASED ON SURVEY DATA FROM 266 FARMS
Liu Hao, Peng Hua, Wang Chuan, Zhu Wenqi, Dong Xiaoxia
Institute of Agricultural Information, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences,Beijing 100081,China
Abstract:
Dairy farming is the foundation of the revitalization of the dairy industry. Due to the dual constraints of environment and resource factors in recent years, improving the efficiency and accurately grasping the key factors affecting the efficiency of dairy farming are of practical significance to break the constraints of environment and resources, improve the output of dairy farming and ensure the healthy and stable development of the dairy industry. Based on the survey data of 266 large scale pastures in 2019, the paper calculated the efficiency of dairy farming in the five major dairy producing areas in China by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and explored the key factors affecting the efficiency of dairy farming in large scale pastures. The results were showed as follows. (1) The scale efficiency and allocation efficiency of China′s large scale dairy farming were high, while the overall level of technical efficiency and cost efficiency was low, so there was still much potential for improvement. There were obvious differences in breeding efficiency in different production areas. The technical efficiency and cost efficiency of production areas around big cities and southern production areas were significantly lower than those of other production areas, while the cultivation efficiency of the Northeast Inner Mongolia production area, the North China production area and the northwest production area was higher as a whole. (2) For large scale pasture, the dietary concentrate to forage ratio and technical input had significant positive impacts on the technical efficiency and scale efficiency of dairy farming, labor cost and fixed asset depreciation had negative impacts on the overall farming efficiency of large scale pasture, and the expansion of breeding scale had a diminishing effect on dairy farming. So, the government should encourage social organizations to carry out socialized services for dairy farming. According to the regional characteristics, ranches in each production area should develop moderate scale breeding and reasonably allocate breeding facilities and equipment, so as to improve breeding efficiency and promote the modern development of dairy farming.
Key words:  dairy region  Data Envelopment Analysis  scale pasture  breeding efficiency
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