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引用本文:叶晗,方静,朱立志,曲俊利,韩枫.我国牧区草原生态补偿机制构建研究[J].中国农业资源与区划,2020,41(12):202~209
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我国牧区草原生态补偿机制构建研究
叶晗1方静2※朱立志2曲俊利1韩枫3
1.自然资源部油气资源战略研究中心,北京100045; 2.中国农业科学院农业经济与发展研究所,北京100081; 3.国家林业和草原局经济发展研究中心,北京100714
摘要:
[目的]通过构建一套科学、合理的牧区草原生态补偿机制,解决牧区近10年来主要实施的一系列生态治理项目和措施中存在的草原生态补偿标准普遍偏低、政策缺少灵活性、监管体系不够完善、缺乏相应保障机制等问题。[方法]通过对国内有关草原生态补偿机制相关文献分类梳理,基于我国牧区草原生态环境现状,对比分析国内外实践,总结国外成功经验,定性分析补偿机制要素,对草原生态补偿机制进行全面、系统地分析论述。[结果]我国牧区草原生态补偿主体应以各级政府为主; 补偿对象应包括牧区牧民、草原生态环境保护的投资者和建设者以及牧区地方政府; 因保护草原生态环境而导致牧区和牧民的发展权受限由此产生的机会成本作为草原生态补偿标准; 补偿方式以中央财政纵向转移支付为主,以市场补偿为辅的组合模式。保障机制需完善法律法规、公众参与、监督管理、绩效评估等方面建设。[结论]我国牧区草原生态补偿机制的构建须对补偿责任主体、补偿范围、补偿标准、补偿方式及补偿保障机制等各要素要进行整体性、系统性深入分析,才能确保草原生态补偿机制能够满足牧区实际需求,提供有力保障。
关键词:  牧区草原生态治理生态补偿机制
DOI:
分类号:F0622
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目“应对牧区草场退化的补偿机制研究”(71173221)
THE STUDY ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF GRASSLAND ECOLOGICAL COMPENSATION MECHANISM IN CHINA′S PASTORAL AREAS
Ye Han1, Fang Jing2※, Zhu Lizhi2, Qu Junli1, Han Feng3
1. Strategic Research Center of Oil and Gas Resources, Ministry of Natural Resources, Beijing 100045, China; 2. Institute of Agricultural Economics and Development, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China; 3.China National Forestry Economic and Development Research Center, Beijing 100714, China
Abstract:
This paper is intended to construct a scientific and reasonable grassland ecological compensation mechanism in China′s pastoral areas, so as to better solve the problems existing in a series of ecological management projects and measures in pastoral areas in the past decade, such as the generally low standard of grassland ecological compensation, lack of policy flexibility, imperfect supervision system, lack of relevant corresponding guarantee mechanism and other issues. This paper, on the basis of combing the relevant domestic literature on grassland ecological compensation mechanism, conducted a comprehensive and systematic analysis and discussion on the grassland ecological compensation mechanism through comparing and analyzing the practice at home and abroad, summing up foreign successful experiences and qualitatively analyzing the elements of compensation mechanism according to the current situation of grassland ecological environment in China′s pastoral areas. The main body of grassland ecological compensation in pastoral areas in China should be governments at all levels, and the objects of compensation should include herdsmen in pastoral areas, investors and builders of grassland ecological environment protection as well as local governments in pastoral areas. The opportunity cost caused by the limitation of pastoral areas and herdsmen′s right to development due to the protection of grassland ecological environment should be regarded as the standard of grassland ecological compensation. The compensation mode should adopt a combination model, with the central government′s vertical transfer payments as the mainstay and market compensation as the supplement. The guarantee mechanism needed to improve the completion of laws and regulations, public participation, supervision and management and performance evaluation. In summary, to achieve the construction of grassland ecological compensation mechanism in pastoral areas of China, an integral, systematic and in depth analysis should be made into the main body of compensation responsibility, the scope of compensation, the compensation standard, the compensation mode and the compensation guarantee mechanism. Only in this way can the grassland ecological compensation mechanism meet the actual needs of pastoral areas and provide strong support.
Key words:  pastoral area  grassland  ecological governance  ecological compensation  mechanism
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