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引用本文:赵颖文,吕火明,李晓.日本农业适度规模经营推行背景、应对举措及对中国启示[J].中国农业资源与区划,2019,40(4):202~209
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日本农业适度规模经营推行背景、应对举措及对中国启示
赵颖文, 吕火明, 李晓
四川省农业科学院农村发展研究中心,成都610066
摘要:
[目的]日本与中国同属于东亚小农社会,土地细碎化问题突出。日本采取了一系列措施推动农业规模化发展,而其中诸多举措对我国农业规模化经营具有重要启示和借鉴意义。[方法]以大量数据材料作为支撑,分析日本积极推进农业规模化经营的现实背景,总结其为应对食物自给率走低、农业人口大量流失、农户兼业化程度加剧、耕地大面积撂荒、务农劳动力高龄化等农业发展难题所采取的主要应对举措及其成效。[结果]日本政府持续创新改进农地制度,推动土地向农业法人经营体集聚; 高度重视适用于山丘区和农村留守劳动力的中小型农机发展,有效提升了农业劳动生产率和缓解了农村土地抛荒问题; 积极培育多元化农业经营主体,推动农业组织经营模式创新; 全方位提升农业社会化服务水平,促进实现农业规模经济效益; 多层次开展农业农村人才培育,化解农业接班人危机。[结论]中国正处于农地细碎化经营向适度规模经营转变发展的重要阶段,可充分借鉴日本成功经验,通过不断深化农村土地制度改革,加大对新型农业经营主体扶持力度,大力提升农业社会化服务运营效率,扎实推进新型职业农民队伍建设等举措,促进实现农业适度规模经营目标。
关键词:  规模经营日本农业推行背景应对举措启示与建议
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:国家社会科学基金项目“多种形式的农业适度规模经营研究”(15BJY102); 四川省财政创新能力提升工程“农业供给侧结构性改革背景下的四川省小规模农业向适度规模现代农业转化路径与机制研究”(2018QNJJ 004); 成都市科技项目“特大中心城市“菜篮子”工程建设研究——以成都市为例”(2016 RK00 00244 ZF)
IMPLEMENTATION BACKGROUND AND COUNTERMEASURES OF APPROPRIATE SCALE MANAGEMENT OF AGRICULTURE IN JAPAN AND ITS ENLIGHTENMENT TO CHINA*
Zhao Yingwen, Lyu Huoming, Li Xiao
Rural Development Research Center of Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences,Chengdu, Sichuan 610066, China
Abstract:
Both Japan and China belong to the small peasant society in East Asia, so the problem of land fragmentation is prominent for both countries. Japan has taken a series of measures to promote scale development of agriculture, many of the measures have important enlightenment and reference on the scale management of agriculture in China. Supported with mass data, this study analyzed the realistic background of Japan′s active promotion of agricultural scale management, and summarized Japan′s main measures and effectiveness of coping with the agricultural problems, such as low rate food self sufficiency, great loss of agricultural population, massive increase in part time farming, large scale abandonment of arable land and fast aging of farming labor force. The results showed that, the Japanese government promoted the land transfer to corporative agricultural business entities by continuously innovating and improving farm land system; effectively increased the agricultural productivity and alleviated the problem of rural land desertion by putting high value on the development of the small and medium sized agricultural machinery which is applicable for hilly areas and the rural left behind labor force; promoted the innovation of agricultural organization operating mode by actively cultivating diversified agricultural business entities; helped to achieve agricultural economies of scale by improving all round agricultural socialized services; relieved the agricultural successor crisis through multi level cultivation of agricultural and rural talents. China is now at an important stage of transforming from fragment farmland management to moderate agricultural scale management, so it is suggested that China should learn from Japan′s successful experiences of agricultural scale development, deepen the reform of rural land system, strengthen the supporting force for new agricultural management entities, enhance the operating efficiency of agricultural socialized service operation vigorously, and take solid steps to promote the team construction of new professional farmers, so as to promote the realization of the goal of moderate scale management of agriculture.
Key words:  scale management  Japan  agriculture  implementation background  countermeasures  enlightenment and suggestions
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