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引用本文:廖文康,王介勇,李红梅.中国农垦农业全要素生产率变化及其区域差异分析[J].中国农业资源与区划,2019,40(5):71~77
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中国农垦农业全要素生产率变化及其区域差异分析
廖文康1,2, 王介勇3, 李红梅4
1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京100101;2.中国科学院大学资源与环境学院,北京100049;3.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京100101;4.中国农垦经济发展中心,北京100122
摘要:
[目的]农垦已经成为我国国有农业经济的骨干和引领农业现代化发展的重要力量。分析我国农垦农业全要素生产率变化态势、区域差异及主要限制因素,提出提升农垦农业全要素生产率对策建议。[方法]采用DEA Malmquist全要素生产率指数法,利用全国30个垦区投入产出数据,评价分析2004—2015年农垦农业全要素生产率变化及其区域差异。[结果]2004—2015年农垦农业全要素生产率总体上呈增长趋势,其平均值为1104,技术进步变化平均值为1160,技术效率变化平均值为0953; 农垦农业全要素生产率增长相对较快的区域为东北地区、黄淮海平原地区、东南沿海和新疆地区,增长相对较慢的区域为黄土高原地区、西南喀斯特地区和东南山地丘陵区等。[结论]2004—2015年农垦农业全要素生产率持续提升,技术进步是全要素生产率增加的主要驱动因素,而技术效率是其主要抑制因素,农垦农业发展主要依赖农业技术进步,而农业经营管理方式仍然相对较粗放; 农垦农业全要素生产率变化呈现显著的区域差异特征,根据农业全要素生产率变化特征将全国垦区划分为高全要素生产率—规模效率驱动型、高全要素生产率—技术驱动型、低全要素生产率—规模效率驱动型和低全要素生产率—技术驱动型4种类型。建议通过完善农垦土地利用与管理制度、建立农垦现代企业用人制度和新型垦农关系、因地制宜分类分区推进农垦农业经营管理改革与创新,全面提升农垦农业全要素生产率。
关键词:  农垦农业全要素生产率DEA Malmquist生产指数法变化区域差异分析
DOI:
分类号:F3299
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目“平原农区农村空心化演进机制及其区域影响研究——基于城乡要素流动视角”(41671178)
REGIONAL DIFFERENCES ANALYSIS OF AGRICULTURAL TOTAL FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY OF CHINA STATE FARMS
Liao Wenkang1,2, Wang Jieyong3, Li Hongmei4
1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China;2. College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;3.Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China;4.Economic Development Center of China State Farms, Beijing 100122, China
Abstract:
China State Farms is the backbone of agricultural economy belonging to the state and the important force to lead the development of agricultural modernization. This study analyzed the changes, regional differences and major limiting factors of agricultural total factor productivity(TFP) of China State Farms, and proposed strategies to improve the TFP of China State Farms. Based on the input and output data of 30 reclamation areas in China, this study evaluated the changes and regional differences of TFP of China State Farms from 2004 to 2015 by using the DEA Malmquist Total Factor Productivity Index method. The TFP of China State Farms from 2004 to 2015 showed a growth trend with an average of 1.104, the average value of technological progress was 1.160, and the average value of technical efficiency change was 0.953. The areas where the TFP of China State Farms grew relatively fast were northeast area, Huang Huai Hai Plain, southeast coast and Xinjiang, and the Loess Plateau, the southwest karst area and the southeast hilly area, were relatively slow.The TFP of China State Farms continued to increase from 2004 to 2015, and technological progress was the main driving factor for the growth, while technical efficiency was the main inhibitor. Agricultural development of China State Farms mainly relied on agricultural technology, while agricultural management methods were still relatively extensive. The change of the TFP of China State Farms showed significant regional differences. According to the characteristics of the TFP of China State Farms, the reclamation areas in China were divided into four types: high TFP scale efficiency driven, high TFP technology driven, low TFP scale efficiency driven and low TFP technology driven. It is suggested to improve the TFP of China State Farms by improving the land use and management system of agricultural land, establishing a modern enterprise employment system and a new relationship between State Farms and farmers, and promoting the reform and innovation of agricultural management based on the local conditions.
Key words:  China State Farms  total factor productivity  DEA Malmquist production index  changes  analysis of regional differences
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