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引用本文:张斌,金书秦.荷兰农业绿色转型经验与政策启示[J].中国农业资源与区划,2020,41(5):1~7
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荷兰农业绿色转型经验与政策启示
张斌, 金书秦
农业农村部农村经济研究中心,北京100810
摘要:
[目的]与我国的农业资源禀赋条件相似,荷兰人多地少,农业资源贫乏,却是世界农业强国,其20世纪80年代开始的农业转型之路对促进我国当前农业绿色发展具有重要借鉴意义。[方法]结合实地调研与文献研究,文章梳理了荷兰40年来在农业环境治理方面的具体政策设计和实施效果,并分析了其主要经验做法及对我国发展的启示。[结果]从畜禽养殖数量控制到化学投入品控制、再到农业资源全管理,荷兰始终坚持以种养结合的可持续发展模式应对农业资源环境挑战,不断强化循环利用技术推广应用,逐步建立了严格的农业资源环境监管体系和政府支持体系,在农业污染得到有效治理的同时,依然很好地保持了国际市场竞争力。[结论]荷兰曾经面对的养殖业污染、化学品过度投入等问题也是我国当前农业环境的突出问题,其当时采取的转型思路与我们目前的绿色发展理念高度一致,借鉴荷兰经验,加快推进我国农业绿色发展,亟需创新循环农业发展模式,加强绿色发展技术支撑,建立并完善农业绿色发展制度体系,协同推进农业资源环境保护和农业竞争力提升。
关键词:  荷兰农业环境绿色发展政策设计
DOI:
分类号:F310
基金项目:国家重点研发计划课题“化肥农药减施增效管理政策创设研究”(2016YFD0201304); 国家社科基金重大项目“生态补偿与乡村绿色发展协同推进体制机制与政策体系研究”(18ZD048); 第四批国家高层次人才特殊支持经费项目“乡村振兴背景下农业绿色发展的技术路径和制度体系”
GREEN TRANSITION AND POLICY ENLIGHTENMENT OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE NETHERLANDS
Zhang Bin, Jin Shuqin
Research Center for Rural Economy, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Beijing 100810, China
Abstract:
The Netherlands is a country with large population and little arable land, with limited resources endowment similar to China. However, the Netherlands is one of the most developed countries in agriculture in the world. The road of green transition of agriculture in the Netherlands since 1980s is of great significance to promote the green development of agriculture in China. Through field investigation and literature research, this research reviewed the policy design and implementation effects of agricultural environmental governance in the Netherlands during the past 40 years and summarized the main experiences. This research aims to shed light on green transition of agriculture in China. The development of environmental governance of agriculture in Netherlands could be dived into three stages since 1980s. The first stage (1980s-1990s) focused on pollution emission control of livestock and poultry breeding quantity. The second stage (1990s-2000s) focused on controlling of chemical products. In the third stage since 2000, the Netherlands started total process management of all agriculture resources. Throughout its transition process, the Netherlands agriculture system adhered to the sustainable development mode of integrating planting and breeding to deal with the challenges of agricultural resources limitation and environment protection, strengthened the innovation and application of recycling technology, Gradually, and established strict agriculture resources and environment monitoring system and government supporting system. While agricultural pollution was effectively treated and agricultural environment was improved continuously, the agricultural industry of the Netherlands maintained competitiveness in the international market. The current prominent environmental problems of China′s agricultural industry are quite similar to the Netherlands in 1980s, such as the pollution of breeding industry and the excessive investment of chemicals. China has a long tradition of agricultural sustainable development and a social awareness for agricultural green development. There are several aspects we can get from the Netherlands to promote the green development of agriculture in China. Firstly, innovate the development mode of circular agriculture; secondly, strengthen technical support for green development; thirdly, establish and improve the policy system of agricultural green development.
Key words:  the Netherlands  agriculture  environment  green development  policy design
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