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中国农业走出去的基本特征、问题与建议
于敏1,李傲2,茹蕾1,张琦1
1.农业农村部对外经济合作中心,北京 100125;2.中国农业大学国家农业农村发展研究院,北京 100083
摘要:
目的 通过分析中国农业走出去的基本情况,总结归纳当前中国农业走出去基本特征和进一步发展的主要问题,并根据主要农产品(农资)国内市场需求程度以及推动走出去的作用,分类给出针对性政策建议。方法 文章运用描述性统计和交叉分析方法,基于对外农业投资数据,结合中国农业走出去在投资区域、投资产业、投资主体和投资方式上的基本特征,分析限制中国农业走出去水平进一步提升的主要问题。结果 中国农业走出去的主要问题表现为:原料进口高度集中且不稳定,经贸摩擦频繁发生;农业走出去企业将强未强,投资产业链短且处于低端;产能转移产业大而不强,科技含量低;内外政策衔接不畅,部门间政策不协调等四方面。结论 因此,建议分类施策,针对直接消费型进口农产品应进一步开放市场,合理预测市场缺口,利用国内市场规模优势培育大型跨国企业;针对原料进口型农产品应推动内外市场产业链对接,加强政策试验,升级“三区”打造总部基地;针对产能转移型农产品应以科技创新为突破点,提高服务贸易的助推剂作用,推动产业阶梯转移促国内高质量发展。
关键词:  农业走出去  农产品供给  农业对外合作  农业双循环  粮食安全
DOI:10.7621/cjarrp.1005-9121.20230701
分类号:F322
基金项目:中央农办 农业农村部乡村振兴专家咨询委员会软科学课题“利用国际市场增强国内重要农产品供给稳定性研究”(rkx20210401);中国—中东欧国家关系研究基金2022年度课题研究项目“中国—中东欧国家农业合作总体现状及领域合作前景与路径分析”(KT202208)
CHARACTERISTICS, PROBLEMS AND SUGGESTIONS OF CHINA'S AGRICULTURE GOING GLOBAL
Min Yu1, Ao Li2, Ru Lei1, Zhang Qi1
1.Foreign Economic Cooperation Center, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Areas, Beijing 100125, China;2.National Agricultural and Rural Development Institute, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China
Abstract:
By analyzing the basic situation, this paper summarizes the basic characteristics and the main blocking points of China's agricultural going global. According to the degree of domestic market demand and the role of promoting going global, this paper classifies and gives policy suggestions to promote the going global of main agricultural products (agricultural materials). Using descriptive statistics and cross analysis methods, based on the data of enterprises' foreign agricultural investment, and combined with the basic characteristics of China's agricultural going global in terms of investment area, investment industry, investment subject and investment mode, this paper analyzed the problems that restricted the improvement of China's agricultural going global level. The results were listed as follow. The problems of China's agriculture going global included raw materials import was highly concentrated and unstable, economic and trade frictions occurred frequently, going global agricultural enterprises still weak, industrial chain was short and at the low side, low scientific and technological content of production capacity transfer industry, poor policy convergence between domestic and foreign countries and among departments. In summary, for direct consumption agricultural imports, we should further open the market, reasonably predict the market gap, and use the scale advantage of the domestic market to cultivate large multinational enterprises; For imported raw materials agricultural products, we should promote the industrial chain connection between internal and external markets, strengthen policy testing, upgrade the "three zones" and build a headquarters base; For capacity transfer agricultural products, scientific and technological innovation should be taken as a breakthrough point to improve the role of the booster of service trade and promote industrial ladder transfer to promote domestic high-quality development.
Key words:  agriculture going global  supply of agricultural products  agricultural foreign cooperation  agricultural double cycle  food safety