|【目的】我国是世界上自然灾害最严重的国家之一，灾害种类多，发生频率高，强度大、灾害群发、地域分异明显，严重影响人民生命财产和国民经济的发展。卫星遥感技术作为一种受地面条件限制少、方法多、信息量大的大范围天基动态感知手段，与地面监测、无人机监测等技术结合，成为开展国内外重特大自然灾害的重要应急监测手段。【方法】针对2019 年3 月西南印度洋洋面生成的强热带气旋“伊代”对非洲东部国家莫桑比克、津巴布韦、马拉维部分地区造成的灾害，利用多源多时相卫星遥感影像，结合行政区划、地表覆盖、舆情信息等多种类型数据资源，利用区域生长法和变化检测的方法，以莫桑比克为研究区开展了持续一周的洪涝淹没范围和房屋、道路等重点要素的遥感监测。【结果】监测结果显示莫桑比克索法拉省蓬圭河和布济河两岸大量村庄和农作物被淹没。2019 年3 月25 日，布济河下游、蓬圭河上游部分区域洪水淹没范围消退，但大部分地区洪水淹没时长超过6 d。【结论】监测结果为防灾减灾救灾决策支持提供了技术支撑。
|关键词: 卫星遥感 强热带气旋 伊代 遥感监测
|Application of satellite remote sensing technology in tropicalcyclone monitoring——taking“ IDAI” as an example
Cui Yan1,2, Nie Juan1,2, Liu Ming1,2, Li Suju1,2
1.National Disaster Reduction Center of China of Ministry of Emergency Management，Beijing 100124，China;2.Satellite Application Center for Disaster Reduction of Ministry of Emergency Management，Beijing 100124，China
|［Purpose］China is one of the countries with the most serious natural disasters in the world. There are many types of disasters，high frequency，high intensity，large number of disasters and geographical differentiation，which seriously affect the development of people’s lives and economic development. As a kind of large-scale space-based dynamic sensing method with limited ground conditions and large amount of information，satellite remote sensing technology often participates in emergency monitoring of major natural disasters together with ground monitoring and UAV monitoring.［Method］According to the disaster caused by the strong tropical cyclone“ IDAI” generated in the southwestern Indian Ocean in March 2019， which affected parts of Mozambique，Zimbabwe and Malawi in eastern Africa，the study used multi-source and multi-temporal satellite remote sensing images，combined with administrative data，surface coverage，and public opinion information. And it used regional growth methods and change detection methods to monitor flood inundation area, houses and roads continued for a week in Mozambique.［Result］The monitoring results showed that a large number of villages and crops on the banks of the Pengu River and Buzi River in Sofa Province were inundated. On March 25，the flood inundation area in the lower reaches of the Buzi River and the upper reaches of the Pengu River subsided，but most of the areas were flooded for more than 6 days.［Conclusion］ The monitoring results provide technical support for decision maker.
|Key words: satellite remote sensing strong tropical cyclone IDAI remote sensing monitoring