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引用本文:石祖梁,邵宇航,王飞,王久臣,孙仁华,宋成军,李想.我国秸秆综合利用面临形势与对策研究[J].中国农业资源与区划,2018,39(10):30~36
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我国秸秆综合利用面临形势与对策研究
石祖梁1,2, 邵宇航3, 王飞1,2, 王久臣1,2, 孙仁华4, 宋成军4, 李想4
1.农业农村部农业生态与资源保护总站,北京100125;2.3.农业农村部资源循环利用技术与模式重点实验室,北京100024;3.南京农业大学农学院,江苏南京210095;4.农业农村部农业生态与资源保护总站,北京100125
摘要:
[目的]为加快推动秸秆资源化利用,促进农业绿色发展。[方法]文章在系统梳理我国秸秆综合利用政策文件、相关文献的基础上,全面分析了我国农作物秸秆禁烧和综合利用的发展阶段,提出了秸秆利用面临的形势和存在的主要问题。[结果]我国秸秆综合利用从时间序列上,可以划分为起步阶段、强力推进阶段和攻坚阶段。城镇化的快速推进、农村能源结构的调整、农业供给侧结构性改革的实施、农作物季节矛盾突出等,成为秸秆综合利用面临的新形势、新挑战。当前推进秸秆综合利用存在四大方面问题:秸秆还田成本较高,区域技术规范和技术适宜性缺乏; 受“成本地板”和“价格天花板”双重挤压,秸秆产业化利用发展困难; 秸秆收储运成本高,技术装备水平低,用地、运输问题尚未解决,收储运体系建设不健全; 关键性政策工具尚未破题,缺乏普惠性、针对性的资金扶持。[结论]针对形势与问题,提出了推进秸秆资源化利用的4条对策建议:开展县域秸秆全量化利用、分区施策确定秸秆利用方向、加强政策工具集成创设、扩大试点示范引导。
关键词:  秸秆发展阶段面临形势存在问题对策建议
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:国家社会科学基金项目“区域秸秆全量化利用策略与激励机制研究”(16CGL039);国家油菜产业技术体系秸秆与副产物综合利用岗位(CARS 12)
STUDY ON THE SITUATION AND COUNTERMEASURES OF STRAW COMPREHENSIVE UTILIZATION IN CHINA
Shi Zuliang1,2, Shao Yuhang3, Wang Fei1,2, Wang Jiuchen1,2, Sun Renhua4, Song Chengjun4, Li Xiang4
1.Rural Energy and Environment Agency, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100125, China;2.3. Key Laboratory of Technologies and Models for Cyclic Utilization from Agricultural Resources, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100024, China;3.College of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210095, China;4.Rural Energy and Environment Agency, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100125, China
Abstract:
China is a big country in agriculture with a wide variety of crop straws, annual total straw resources reaches 1 billion tons. To accelerate the utilization of straw resources and promote the green development of agriculture, the study systematically reviewed China′s policy documents and related literatures on straw comprehensive utilizationand analyzed comprehensively the development stage of crop straw ban burning and comprehensive utilization, and put forward the situation and main problems existing. The results show that the comprehensive utilization of straw in China can be divided into three stages from the time series: the initial stage, the strong promotion stage and the tough battle stage. At present, the comprehensive utilization of straw is facing four new situations and new challenges, including the rapid advancement of urbanization, the adjustment of rural energy structure, the implementation of structural reforms on the agricultural supply side, and the prominent contradiction between crop seasons. At the same time, there are still four major problems. Firstly, the cost of straw returning to field is high, and the regional technical specifications and technical suitability are lacking. Secondly, it is subject to the double squeeze of "cost floor" and "price ceiling", resulting difficulties in the development of industrial utilization of straw. Third, the cost of straw collection, storage and transportation was high, and the level of technology and equipment is low.Some problems have not been solved, such as electricity and transportation, the construction of straw collection, storage and transportation system is incomplete. Fourth, the key policy tools have not yet been broken, and there have been no universal or targeted financial support. In response to the above new situation and new issues, the study propose four countermeasures to promote the utilization of straw resources, including to carry out the full quantitative utilization of straw in the county, determine the direction of straw treatment according to regional characteristics, strengthen the creation of policy tools, and expand the guidance of pilot and demonstration.
Key words:  crop straw  development stage  the current situation, the main problems, policy suggestions
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