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欧盟有机农业立法的架构、维度与启示
刘婷
上海政法学院国际法学院,上海 201701
摘要:
目的 欧盟有机农业立法不仅推动了世界范围内有机农业立法的发展,提高了农业领域立法水平,对我国有机农业也有着良好的借鉴意义。方法 文章运用法学的文本研究方法深入剖析欧盟有机农业法规,发现在立法架构上该法规根据不同的农业生产领域进行规制;在立法维度上将有机农业生产全部流程都纳入管理,对生产、上市及授权的每一步都有细致规定,避免了宽泛性指导;在立法原则上,欧盟有机农业立法注重与基因技术管理的基本理念与原则相一致,将食品与农产品的风险预防与审慎管理相结合,打造从“农场到餐桌”的全程安全保障体系。结果 欧盟是有机农业发展的科技先驱,更是有机农业法律规制的立法先驱。欧盟于2022年实施《关于有机产品的有机生产和标识的2018/848有机农业法规》将有机农业生产的整个供应链条都纳入到法律的调整范围内,有力保障了有机农业的良性发展。欧盟实施有机农业立法的动因首先来自欧洲人民对于食品安全的较高需求以及对于环境保护的迫切愿望。此外,随着基因技术在农业中的运用,对于基因技术的潜在风险防范,也成为有机农业发展的重要原因之一。结论 欧盟的有机农业立法以其合理的架构、完善的规则和可适用性为有机农业领域立法提供了一个非常好的法律范本。我国近年来有机农业发展迅速,但是农业有机立法尚属空白。尽快建立有机农业立法体系对推动我国有机农业立法、促进我国有机农业发展具有积极影响。
关键词:  有机农业生产  审慎原则  生产纪律  流通约束  生态农业
DOI:10.7621/cjarrp.1005-9121.20230702
分类号:D971.2
基金项目:2018年度国家社科基金重大项目 “我国转基因食品规制法律体系构建研究”(18ZDA147)
THE LEGAL STRUCTURE, DIMENSION AND ENLIGHTENMENT OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE LEGISLATION IN EUROPEAN UNION
Liu Ting
School of Political Science and Law, Shanghai University of Political Science and Law, Shanghai 201701, China
Abstract:
The European Union attaches great importance to the development of organic agriculture. It has been truly implemented at the level of policy and legal system, which is of great significance to the transformation of agriculture in the European Union. Using the text research method of jurisprudence to deeply analyze the Regulation(EU)2018/848, it can be found that the Regulation(EU)2018/848 regulated according to different agricultural production fields in the legislative structure. It covered plant production rules, livestock production rules, algae and aquaculture, and production of processed food and feed. Furthermore, each step of the authorization and authorization had detailed regulations, avoiding broad guidance. In terms of legislative principles, the Regulation(EU)2018/848 focused on being consistent with the basic concepts and principles of genetic technology management. The Regulation(EU)2018/848 combined risk prevention and prudent management of food and agricultural products and created a whole-process security system from "farm to table". The Regulation(EU)2018/848 used special provisions for handling measures for violations, so that the effectiveness of the regulation can be effectively guaranteed. As a pioneer in organic agriculture, the Regulation(EU)2018/848 regulated the production of organic agriculture, and provided a solid institutional guarantee for the development of organic agriculture. The motivation for the European Union to implement organic agriculture legislation came from the European people's high demand for food safety and the urgent desire for environmental protection. In addition, with the application of genetically modified technology in agriculture, the prevention of potential risks of genetically modified technology had also become one of the important reasons for the development of organic agriculture. In summary, the Regulation(EU)2018/848 provides a good legal model for the organic agriculture legislation. It has a reasonable legal structure and detailed rules which is applicable. The EU organic agriculture legislation not only promotes the development of organic agriculture legislation around the world, but also improves the legislative level in the field of agriculture, and also has a good reference for China's organic agriculture. The organic agriculture in China has developed rapidly in recent years, but the agricultural organic legislation goes slowly. The establishment of the organic agriculture legislative system has a positive impact on promoting organic agriculture legislation and promoting the development of organic agriculture in China. It is necessary to coordinate the development of organic agriculture and traditional agriculture, construct and improve organic agriculture legislation, and maximize the food safety and ecological environment advantages of organic agriculture.
Key words:  organic agricultural production  precautionary principle  production discipline  circulation constraints  ecological agriculture