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长江禁捕退捕政策的演进逻辑与实践路径——基于政策文本分析的视角
杨杨1,2,吴娟1,陈廷贵2,3
1.上海海洋大学海洋文化与法律学院,上海 201306;2.农业农村部长江水域生态保护战略研究中心,上海 201306;3.上海海洋大学经济管理学院,上海 201306
摘要:
目的 对长江禁捕退捕政策的演进逻辑和实践路径进行研究,可为政策优化提供决策参考,对“长江大保护”国家战略的实施具有重要意义。方法 聚焦长江禁捕退捕政策演进,文章运用文本分析方法对2017—2021年中央出台的93份长江禁捕退捕政策文本进行系统分析。结果 (1)长江禁捕退捕政策经历了政策发端期(2017—2018年)、政策爆发期(2019—2020年)与政策转型期(2021年)3个阶段。(2)政策颁布主体和政策文种构成随着政策演进发生变化,政策强度和效力呈现“弱—强—弱”的变动趋势。(3)需求面政策工具较为缺乏,不同阶段的政策实践路径具有明显差异。结论 提出政策优化方向,首先,从整体性治理视角完善长江禁捕退捕管理长效机制;其次,充分发挥部门机构和政策文种的功能作用;最后,优化政策工具结构,增加部分稀缺政策工具的使用。
关键词:  长江禁捕退捕  文本分析  演进逻辑  实践路径  十年禁渔
DOI:10.7621/cjarrp.1005-9121.20230718
分类号:D035;D63;F326.4
基金项目:国家自然科学基金面上项目“基于可持续生计框架的长江流域禁捕补偿政策绩效评估和优化研究”(72173084);教育部人文社会科学研究规划基金项目“长江流域重点水域禁捕补偿政策影响研究”(20YJA790081)①2017年“中央一号文件”:“完善江河湖海限捕、禁捕时限和区域,率先在长江流域水生生物保护区实现全面禁捕”;2018年中央一号文件:“建立长江流域重点水域禁捕补偿制度”;2019年“中央一号文件”:“降低江河湖泊和近海渔业捕捞强度,全面实施长江水生生物保护区禁捕”;2020年“中央一号文件”:“在长江流域重点水域实行常年禁捕,做好渔民退捕工作”;2021年“中央一号文件”:“加强水生生物资源养护,推进以长江为重点的渔政执法能力建设,确保十年禁渔令有效落实,做好退捕渔民安置保障工作”;2022年“中央一号文件”:“实施生物多样性保护重大工程。巩固长江禁渔成果,强化退捕渔民安置保障,加强常态化执法监管。强化水生生物养护,规范增殖放流”
EVOLUTION LOGIC AND PRACTICAL PATH OF THE POLICY OF FISHING BAN IN THE YANGTZE RIVER——FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF POLICY TEXT ANALYSIS
Yang Yang1,2, Wu Juan1, Chen Tinggui2,3
1.College of Marine Culture and Law, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, China;2.Yangtze River Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Strategic Research Center of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Shanghai 201306, China;3.College of Economics and Management, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, China
Abstract:
The research on the evolution logic and practical path of the policy of fishing ban in the Yangtze River can provide decision-making reference for policy optimization and is of great significance to the implementation of the national strategy of "Great Protection of the Yangtze River". Focusing on the evolution of the policy of fishing ban in the Yangtze River, this paper systematically analyzed the 93 Yangtze River fishing ban policy texts issued by the central government from 2017 to 2021 by using the text analysis method. The study found that: (1) The policy of fishing ban in the Yangtze River experienced the initial period of the policy (2017—2018), the outbreak period of the policy (2019-2020) and the transition period of the policy (2021). (2) The main body of policy promulgation and the composition of policy texts changed with the evolution of the policy, resulting in the change trend of "weak-strong-weak" in the strength and effectiveness of the policy. (3) There was a lack of demand side policy tools, and the policy practice paths at different stages were obviously different. Accordingly, the direction of policy optimization is put forward: firstly, from the perspective of holistic governance, it should improve the long-term mechanism of the management of the fishing ban in the Yangtze River. Secondly, give full play to the functions of departmental institutions and policy texts. Finally, optimize the structure of policy tools and increase the use of some scarce policy tools.
Key words:  the policy of fishing ban in the Yangtze River  text analysis  evolution logic  practice path  Ten -Year Yangtze River Fishing Ban